Skip to main content

Full text of "The Fire Lands pioneer"

See other formats





3 1833 01729 2415 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 

Oetober, 18QS. 

Priee, SO Gepts. 

New Series, Volume 

THe f'nimh Pioneer. 

Pdhlished hv the 

Firelands Flistorical Society, 

-YieadQdavtevs in- 




E. J. Lee & Co., Norwalk, O 






/^^ cS, ..^^^^^^^-^^^^^ 

For Hii.Krai.liical Sk(>tcl» 

S,H> Voliuno 4, PaKOS Titi to TiS, 

Fin>laiuls Pionoor, 

i\inv Scriiv-.) 

New Series VoLunE VIIL 

The Firelands PioneeF, 


Firelands Historical Society 






Officers of the Society 


G. T. STEWART, President, - 

H. P. STARR, Vice President, ^ 

R. R. SLOANE, Vice President 

F. W. VAN DUSEN, Recording Secretary, 

CHAS. A. PAUL, Corresponding Secretary, 

C. W. MANAHAN, Treasurer, 

C. H. GALLUP, Librarian, 

F. R. LOOMIS, Biographer, 




Nor walk. 


- "Norwalk. 

- Norwalk, 





Of the Firelands Historical Society and its Board of 
Directors and Trustees. 

Continued from New Series, Volume VII. 

Winter Meeting at Huron, February 22, 1894. 


The Firelands Historical Society met in the Town Hall in 
Huron, O., Feb. 22d, 1894. 

Meeting called to order at 10:30 a. m. by the President, G. 
T. Stewart. 

Invocation by Rev. W. T. Hart. 

In the absence of the recording secretary, Mrs. Mary D. 
Anderson was chosen secretary pro tem. 

Overture, "On the Rhine," by the orchestra, composed of 
W. R. Reynolds, 1st violin ; J. D. Driver, clarionet ; Frank D. 
Brooks, cornet ; Georgie Morse, 2d violinist ; Mrs. C. H. Ran- 
som, pianist. 

Recitation by Herbert Harris, "Flash." 


A very interesting talk was then given by the President on 
the history of the Firelands in connection with the first settle- 
ment of Huron and the Indian tribes in this vicinity. 

He then read a paper from A, E. Rowley, of Norwaik, enti- 
tled, "Uncle Jim, the Last of the Wyandots." giving interesting 
reminiscences of an aged Indian who has lived in Fairfield, 
Huron County, over half a century, and of his life with the Wy- 
andots until they left Ohio for the West when he separated from 

The meeting adjourned to accept the invitation to a free 
dinner given by the citizens of Huron. 


Meeting again called to order at 1:30 p. m. 

Overture by orchestra, "My Native Hills." 

Address by Rev. Charles S. Aves, of Norwalk, pastor of St. 
Paul's Episcopal Church. 

Moved and carried that the thanks of this Historical Society 
be given Rev. Mr, Aves for his able and eloquent address and 
that it be requested for publication in the Pioneer. 

Duet by Mr. and Mrs. C. H, Ransom, "I Live and Love Thee." 

A cabinet picture of Mrs. Cuddeback, aged 104 years, who 
is living at Vermillion, was exhibited by the President. 

Recitation by H, K. Brundage, "Uncle William's Picture." 

The names of the aged pioneers in and around Huron were 
taken as follows : 

G.W.Garrett, aged 82; A.W.Meeker, 78; J. W. Wickham, 
Sr., 87 ; Corbin Bartlett, 88 ; Mrs. Lucretia Smith, 80 ; Mrs. 
Eliza Shirley, 70 ; Mrs. Jane Carpenter, 71 ; John P. Cleveland, 
79 ; Mrs. Mary Rosekelly, 77 ; Mrs. Lucy Jackson, 78 ; Luke S. 
Stowe, 77; Samuel Shaeffer. 91; Jas. Wentworth, 77; Wm. 
Slye, 78 ; Wm. J. Hine, 84. 

Hon. C. H. Gallup, of Norwalk, gave reminiscences of Huron, 
dating back 54 years, when he came to Huron to see a vessel 


launched. At that time a hotel stood near the bluff and a num- 
ber of buildings were still north of that; all of which have been 
swallowed up by Lake Erie in its encroachments on the shore. 

The canal connecting Milan with Huron was built in the 
years 1837-8 which made Milan headquarters for grain shipping, 
and it then ranked as second in importance in the world, Odessa, 
Russia, ranking first, and Massillon, O., third. 

In 1877, Mr. Gallup found, in a ditch at Huron, the ruins 
of the first rotary fire engine used in Norwalk up to 1853. 

J. W. Wickham Jr., of Huron, said that before the building 
of the canal, Huron was a very large shipping port. 

Mr. Higgins, then Representative, favored the building of 
the canal and gave as his reason that unless trade was diverted 
from Huron by way of the canal, it would eventually outstrip 
Sandusky and gain the county seat. The result proved his pro- 
phetic ability. 

Capt. Kirby, of Huron, said the name of Huron was familiar 
to him 70 years ago. 

In 1836 he came here on the Congress. They took in 2000 
bushels of grain from Wickham's warehouse and 2200 bushels of 
grain from Cleveland, the largest burthen then carried through 
the Welland Canal. 

The "Walk in the Water" was the first steamer on Lake 

He personally knew the distinguished scientist, Thomas A, 
Edison at the age of 16, then living at Milan, who had a small 
steam engine made by himself and a tea kettle was used by hirr. 
in generating steam for it. 

There were five hotels in Huron, 1836. 

Capt. Kirby said he commenced sailing out of Huron in the 
year 1847. At that time there were 11 warehouses in Milan. 

Solo by Mrs. C. H. Ransom, 'The Night Birds Cooing". 
Miss Plora Day, pianist. 

On a call for relics. Miss Millie Gray, of Clarksfield, Huron 
Co., O., exhibited two bills of Continental currency, left her by 


her father, James M. Grray, of Clarksfield, (now deceased) who 
received them from his father, Solomon Gray, who had in turn 
been presented with them by his father, Moses Gray, of Con- 
necticut, who served in the Revolutionary War, and was paid 
for his services with this kind of currency, of which, at one time, 
he had a large amount in his possession. Of these two bills, we 
give the following copies : 


No. 11,436. FIVE DOLLARS. 

This Bill entitles the Bearer 
to receive Five Spanish Mill- 
ed Dollars, or the value 
Sustine. Vel. Abstine. thereof in Gold or Silver, 
FIVE DOLLARS. according to a resolution of 

Congress, passed at Phila- 
delphia, November 29, 1775. 
Stephen Collins, 
Sam'l C. Morris. 


saiNO^oo aaxmn anx 

On this bill the Latin words are printed on a seal, in the 
form of a circle. This seal has the representation of a plant grow- 
ing, and a hand is reaching up to gather the fruit. On the re- 
verse of the bill we find a small vignette, consisting of leaves, and 
the words : "Five Dollars. Philadelphia : Printed by Hall and 
Sellers. 1775." 



No. 234988 

Mojora Minorihus 



This Bill entitles the Bearer 
to receive Eight Spanish 
Milled Dollars, or the value 
thereof in Gold or Silver, 
according to a Resolution 
passed by Congress at Phil- 
adelphia,September 26, 1778. 
D. Weston, 
M. Casher. 

•SHv^;^oa XHOia 

•saxvxs aaj^iNxi anx 

On this bill, the Latin words are printed on a seal, in the 


form of a circle. This seal has the representation of a harp upon 
it. On the reverse of this bill, we find a small vignette, consist- 
ing of leaves, and these words : "Eight Dollars. Printed by Hall 
and Sellers. 1778." 

She also exhibited a Bank Scrip given her by her father, of 
which we give copy. 



This note for 


will be received on deposit, or in payment of 

debts at the 


Philadelphia, Jan. 15th, 1816. 

For H. Drinker, Cashier. 

H. Drinker. 
(Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co.) 

Hon. C. H. Gallup wished to record two Indian incidents 
which occurred at Norwalk. An Indian called on Dr. Moses C. 
Saunders and got a prescription. He paid the Doctor one dollar 
which was found to be a bogus coin. The Doctor kept it and 
afterwards spoke to the Indian about it. The Indian said, "Yan- 
kee make um, Yankee got um, Yankee keep um." 

The other occurred with Capt. Tice who built the first hotel 
in Norwalk. An Indian went to the Captain and asked if he 
wanted a deer. The Captain said yes. The Indian said, "Give 
me a dollar, I go shoot deer. You go get deer. Go to creek, 
find tree, there be deer." The Captain paid the dollar, went and 
found both creek and tree, but no deer. He afterwards remons- 
trated with the Indian, who said : "Find creek?" Yes. "Find 
tree?" Yes. "Find deer?" No. "Well two truths to one lie 
pretty good for Indian." 

C. L.Hill told an anecdote showing the shrewdness of an In- 
dian. He went to Esquire Hill of Berlin and said he killed a 
deer and hung it up. A white man stole it. The white man 
was short, had a short gun and a little dog with a short tail. 
Mr. Hill asked him how he knew all these things. He said he 
knew it was a white man because he toed out and a short man 


because he stood on a block to take dowiT the deer. He knew he 
had a little dog with him with a short tail, because he saw the 
marks where he sat in the snow and he had a short gun because 
he saw where it marked the tree where it rested. 

Dr. J. H. Calvin exhibited a book entitled "The Doctrine of 
Vulgar and Deciminal Fractions Explained and Made Easy to 
the Meanest Capacity, by Charles Phipps Sen. of the City of 
Dublin, Writing Master." It was dated 1745. 

Reuben Turner told a story related by Rice Harper, who said 
there was quite a strife between Huron and Sandusky to secure 
the county seat. 

A committee went to Sandusky first, then to Huron and put 
up at the hotel, Ohio. There was a great freshet and the streets 
were filled with water. The walks were afloat and the barns 
were flooded so they could find no place for their horses. The 
peo]3le accompanying them from Sandusky told them that such 
was a common occurrence. The committee returned to Sandusky 
where they were banqueted, and they reported in favor of 
Sandusky. Had it not been for the storm, Huron would have 
been chosen. 

A.W.Meeker explained how Huron county became divided, 
forming two counties. 

A Representative of Huron county by the name of Ebenezer 
Warner, of Vermillion, planned to separate Huron into two coun- 
ties, favoring Sandusky as the county seat, hox^ing to subdivide 
Lorain and Erie, making a new county with Vermillion for the 
county seat. 

Mr. Meeker said he was sure that the "Walk in the Water" 
was built as far back as 1818, for he remembers distinctly of 
going with his father to Sandusky, in the year 1826 to embark 
on her for Detroit, and that she was an old boat then. 

J. W. Wickham, Sr., also said he was sure she was built in 


There was noln'idge across the Huron river until about 1845. 


There was a ferry across, about where Mr. Wickham's ice house 

The first steamboat builL in Huron~was the "Sheldon Thomp- 
son" in 1830. 

A vote of thanks was given to the people of Huron for their 
hospitable entertainment and to those who participated in the 
musical and literary exercises. 

After singing "America," the benediction was pronounced by 
Rev. Mr. Aves and the meeting closed. 


Secretary, pro tern. 



Piretand^s; Htetorical ^odet^. 

At Norwalk, June 13th, 1894. 

The thirty-eighth annual meeting of the "Firelands Historical 
Society" was held in the Grallup block in Norwalk, on the second 
Wednesday of June (the 13th) 1894, with a large attendance of 
pioneers, members and visitors. 

The president, G. T. Stewart, called the meeting to order at 10 
o'clock a. m. 

The exercises were opened with prayer by Rev John H 
Pitezel, of Norwalk. 

A fine solo, "Farewell Marguerite." was sung by Miss Mabel 
Link, accompanied on the piano by Miss Mabel Grallup. 

As the proceedings of the last annual and quarterly meetings 
had been published in the "Firelands Pioneer," it was decided 
to dispense with the reading of them. 

The annual report of the Board of Directors and Trustees of 
the society, was read by the Recording Secretary. F. H. Jones, 
as follows : 



The Board of Directors and Trustees of the Firelands His- 
torical Society respectfully submit their annual report for the 
year ending June 13, 1894. 

The Society held two of its quarterly meetings in the last year, 
one at Berlin Heights, Aug., 31, 1893, and the other at Huron, 
February 22, 1894. 

Both were well attended and evinced an increasing interest 
in the objects of the Society. 

An edition of 500 copies of pamphlet Vol. 7, of the Firelands 
Pioneer, new series, containing over 160 pages, was printed by 
the Chronicle Publishing Company on the same terms as the 
last previous volumes. 

The Society is free from debt, except a small balance on the 
last issue of the Pioneer, which will soon be paid for from the 
avails of its sale 

The Society has a large number of the back publications of 
the Pioneer remaining to be sold. 

Over 1,700 pages of the old, and over 1,100 iDages of the new 
series of the Pioneer have been printed in the thirty-seven years 
of the existence of the Society, and calls have been received 
from various public libraries and historical associations through- 
out our country, to enable them to complete full sets of the Pio- 
neer. Some of the early numbers are out of print and those 
members of the Society who can supply them will please inform 
the Librarian, C. H. Gallup, Esq., who will buy or exchange 
other numbers of the old or new series for them. 

Twenty pamphlet volumes of both series have been published, 
making together, three large volumes. Those who wish to ex- 
change for bound volumes of new series or to complete their sets, 
can so arrange with the Librarian. 

The Board repeats its appeal to the citizens of Norwalk, 
to exercise their power of providing a Monumental Hall or struct- 
ure in this city, in honor of the officers and soldiers of regiments 
from this part of Ohio, who served in Union armies in the late 


civil war, and in other wars of this Republic ; and which may 
also contain an armory and place for collecting and preserving- 
for free public view, battle flags, cannon, swords, guns and other 
relics of those wars, with^the mihtary, prehistoric, scientitic and 
pioneer collections of the Firelands Historical Society. 

Gr. T. Stewaet, President'. 

I . M. GiLLETT, 

J. M. Whiton, 
F. R. LooMis, 
C. H. Gallup, 


Board of Directors and TrusteeSy 
Norwalk, Ohio, June 13, 1894. 

On motion of P. N. Schuyler, of Bellevue, the report was 
approved and made a part of the minutes. 

The report of the Treasurer of the Society, C. W. Manahan, 
was read by him, and on motion of Capt. C. Woodruff, of Peru, 
was referred to the Auditing Committee, appointed by the Presi- 
dent, consisting of Capt. C. Woodruff, D. D. Benedict and P. N. 

The Librarian, C. H. Gallup, and the Biographer, F. R. 
Loomis, made verbal reports of their offices, for the year, which 
w(Te approved. 

J. D. Chamberlain, of Norvvalk, made some suggestions in 
favor of an exchange of publications with other Historical 
Societies. It was stated that the Board of Directors of this 
Society, at their last meeting, had taken action in that direction. 

On motion of C. H. Gallup, some matters, such as the his- 
torical relics and publications of the Society, were also referred 
to the Auditing Committee. 

On motion of P. N. Schuyler, a committee of five was ap- 
pointed to report the names of officers for the ensuing year. The 
committee chosen was P. N. Schuyler, of Bellevue : H. P. Starr, 


of Birmingham ; Eno Holliday, of Hartland ; John M. Whiton, 
of Wakeman ; and J. D. Easton, of Monroeville. 

The Biographer, F R Loomis, urged that the Pioneers or 
their friends for them, have their biographies made out while 
they are yet living. 

Mr. Chamberlain said that he wished to emphasize the 
suggestion of Mr. Loomis, that Pioneers attend to the making 
of their own biographies. Errors in the publication could thus 
be discovered and corrected. 

Mr Loomis said that Isaac T. Reynolds wished to have a 
correction made in his biography published in the last number 
of the Pioneer. It was there stated that he had sold his farm, 
but should have said that he had sold the undivided half of it. 

A paper was read by Mr Loomis, prepared by I. M. Gillett, 
one of the Directors and Trustees of the Society, entitled "A 
Legend of Huron." On motion of Mr. Chamberlain, it was or- 
dered that the paper be published in the next number of the 
Firelands Pioneer. 

An obituary notice of Mrs. Caroline Underhill, was read by 
Capt. C. Woodruff, with remarks in honor of the deceased. 

The committee for the nomination of officers of the Society 
for the ensuing year, reported as follows : 

For President, Gr. T. Stewart, Norwalk. 
" 1st Vice President, J. D. Easton, Monroeville. 
" 2d Vice President, H. P. Starr, Birmingham. 
" Recording Secretary, F. H. Jones, Norwalk. 
" Corresponding Secretary, J. G. Gibbs, Norwalk. 
"Treasurer, C. W Manahan, Norwalk. 
" Librarian, C. H. Gallup, Norwalk 
" Biographer, F. R. Loomis, Norwalk. 

For Board of Directors and Trustees, J, M. Whiton, Wake- 
man ; J. L. Brooks, Huron ; I. M. Gillett, C, H. Gallup and 
F. R. Loomis, of Norwalk. 

The report was unanimously adopted. 


Judge Stickney, Mr. Gallup, Mr. Chamberlain and others 
then made explanations and suggestions as to the publications 
of the Society. 

President Stewart urged all pioneers and friends of the 
Society to take the Firelands Pioneer. He said : Just as the 
money comes in, and so fast as it comes in, by the sale of the 
numbers of the publications which are out, we will go right on 
with the next. It is desired that we issue, if possible, every 
year. In the first two years of our publication, when we were 
flooded with material, we issued quarterly, but since then not so 

If you get the last seven volumes of the new series, you can 
have them bound in one handsome volume. 

The old numbers are very hard to get, and those who have 
them unbound will please report to Mr. Gallup. Hunt up your 
old volumes and bring them along to him. 

The old series contains over 1,700 pages, and the new series 
have over 1,100 pages of valuable historical matter. 

The last number for 1894, has over 160 pages. Any of you 
who desire to buy a volume can secure it for fifty cents, which 
also makes you a member of the Society for a year to come. 
We have to depend entirely on the sales of our numbers as we 
get them out. 

This Society has never had any donations to it, except that of 
one noble lady, Catherine Gallup, who, in her will, gave a bequest 
of $500 to aid the Society in its publications. That we have 
named the Catherine Gallup Fund, which is let out at eight per 
cent and brings us in $40 per year. We wish some of the 
Pioneers who are i^assing away would remember us in their 
wills ; their bequests would aid us in going on with the opera- 
tions of the Society. We have abundance of materials on hand, 
and will have abundance more next volume, to be issued by^the 
end of this year. The ofiicers of the Society do their work for 
nothing and pay for all copies of the Pioneer they take. 

Mr. Chamberlain said : 'T would suggest that the names of 



those whose biographies will appear in our next number, be 
published, so as to attract attention, that people will know whose 
biographies they will have when they get the book." 

All Pioneers present over seventy years of age were then 
^ requested to rise, that their names might be enrolled and jjre- 
served on the records of the Society. 


The following is a list of the Pioneers in attendance over 
70 years of age : 

Judge C. B. Stickney, Norwalk, aged over 84 years. 

Eno Holliday, Hartland, " " 81 

J. Ernesberger, " " " 87 

I. T. Reynolds, Berlin Tp , " " 88 

A, H.Silcox, Hartland, " " 81 

Abial Farley, Norwalk, '' " 82 

C. W. Manahan, " " " 81 

E. B. Peck, Florence, '' " 80 

Rev. John H. Pitezel, Norwalk, " " 80 

Fanny S. White, " " " 88 

Mrs. Eliza Allen, " " " 83 

Mary E. Latimer, " " " 87 

Nathaniel Burdue, " " " 84 

Nathan G. Sherman, " " " 84 

Bartlett Davis, Hartland, " " 76 

Walter S. Brown, Oxford, " " 77 

Samuel Thompson, Norwalk, " " 79 

Mary A. Kellogg, Peru, " " 71 

W. B. Stone, Oxford, '' " 75 

Mrs. E. A. Pitezel, Norwalk, " " 79 

Augustus L. Coit, Hartland, '•' " 70 



73 .years. 































Mary A. Cooper, Clarksfield 

Barna Cooper, " 

J. N. Barnum, " 

Betsey Sutton, Peru, 

H. Pierce, 

Capt. C. Woodruff " 

Abigail Bear, Milan, 

Thos. Stratton, Hartland, 

C. H. Jackson, 

W. B. Hoyt, Ridgefield, 

B. S. Taylor, Berlin, 

J. D. Chamberlain, Norwalk, 

Some interesting remarks were made over the biographies 
given in the last number of the Pioneer, among them, George 
and Henry Buckingham, early settlers of this place. 

Mention being made of the old paper mill in Norwalk, Mr. 
Burr said ; " My sister sorted rags in that old mill." 

Mr. Schuyler said ; I would like to call your attention to a 
fact about that old paper mill ; " After the mill was burned, its 
boiler was left out of doors ; the boiler was blown up and it 
was found that Josh Billings, the famous humorist, then living 
h^re, had blown it up for fun." 

Judge Stickney said; "I will add a remark in regard to 
Henry Buckingham. When he died I had the honor of being 
administrator and settling his estate. I recollect the great book 
of that Mill Company coming into my hands. I have in the 
office a table, which is of solid wood, and very old, and any of 
the heirs of Henry Buckingham, are welcome to this old relic 
of the Buckinghams " 

Mr. Gillett exhibited a catalogue of the Norwalk Seminary 
in the year 1846,. with course of studies at that time, and names 
of officers and students ; some attending it then being now 
prominent citizens of Norwalk. 

P. N Schuyler said ; " Uncle Benedict was the first 


settler in Norwalk village, and one of the first in Huron county. 
I was born in New York state and came to Ohio with my father 
in the year 1834. We travelled in a common covered wagon, 
and down the river as far as Danville It was over sixty years 
ago that I met Uncle Piatt on his w^ay to Connecticut. We met 
by a meeting house, and he spoke to my father and asked him 
where he was going. My father said he was going to Huron 
county, Ohio. Uncle Piatt said ; 'I live in Huron county, when 
you arrive there inquire for Uncle Henry Buckingham ; he is the 
manager of a stea a mill, I own an interest in,' and he said, 'tell 
him that I am all right.' We came here and found Uncle 
Henry Buckingham. He v^^as as polite and fine a genjtleman as 
you could find. He was a young gentleman then, and he 
invited us to take tea with him, which we did, at his house neai* 
where the Catholic church now stands. He showed us the 
mill in which was the first steam engine I had seen. I looked 
at it with a great deal of interest, for it was a new thing to me."" 


C. H. Gallup, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, 
announced that a free dinner had been provided by the com- 
mittee at the Universalist church, for the Pioneers, and on 
motion a recess was taken until half past one o'clock. 

Over eighty of the Pioneers and other guests of the Society 
accompanied Mr. Gallup to the church where they were served 
by the ladies with a rich and bountiful repast. 


The exercises of the afternoon were opened with a beauti- 
ful song by Miss. Matie Smith, accompanied on the piano by 
Miss. Mabel Gallup. 

The Recorder of Huron county, Wm. G. Holliday, by re- 
quest of the President of the Society, sent in and exhibited the 


first two volumes of the old records of deeds, mortgages, plats, 
etc., in his office, going back over eighty years, and prior to the 
settlement of Nor walk. 

The first deed recorded there, was from Jadock Starr to 
John Dock, dated May 13, 1809. 

Mr. Holliday stated in reply to inquiries from Major Hueston 
and others, that there are in the County Recorder's office, vol- 
umes containing the first surveys and also the title deeds from 
the State of Connecticut, in the form of pounds, shillings and 
pence, instead of acres, being the amount of losses caused by 
the British troops in the Revolutionary War, when they ravaged 
and burned the towns of that state. They were recompensed 
by deeds of right in the Firelands. 

President Stewart called attention to the historic records 
contained in these two volumes of the first Pioneer town plats, 
laid out in the Firelands, and read from them, giving their 
dates, the names of their proprietors and various interesting 
facts found in them. 

The first was that of Huron laid out by David Abbott and 
Kneeland Townsend, June 14, 1811, and recorded by Almond 
Ruggles, Recorder of Huron county, June 18, 1811. 

The others in these two volumes, are New Haven, New 
Jerusalem, Bloomingville, Norwalk, Venice, on Sandusky Bay, 
Norwich, Portland, Beatty, Munroe, Sandusky and Macksville. 

That of Norwalk was laid out by Elisha Whittlesey for 
himself and Piatt Benedict, October 16, 1816, and then con- 
tained only 48 lots, with two streets and four alleys. 

Capt. Woodruff mentioned a remark of Martin Kellogg, 
that when Macksville was laid out, it was larger than ,Chicago 
was at that time. 

P. N. Schuyler said that before the county seat was located 
at Norwalk, the courts of the new county of Huron were held 
at Avery in Milan township. 


The first court was held tbere by the Judge sitting on a log 
and the lawyers standing around to make speeches. 

The sheriff's house was the court house, and its cellar was 
the jail. They had one prisoner and the Court instructed the 
grand jury to go out and bring in their report The prisoner 
was a young lady. They took her out of the jail and put her 
in the Sheriff's house, while the grand jury went into the jail. 
When the Sheriff came back, he found that the grand jury had 
given leg-bail and run away. So the court discharged the 

The Rev. John Pitezel presented to the Society some gram- 
mars used in the old Norwalk academy. He also exhibited an 
envelope containing a letter from Rev. J. E. Chaplain, then 
Principal of the Academy ; also a sermon of Mr. Chaplain 
preached about 53 years ago, which he gave to Mr. Pitezel with 
the request to "take and preach it." The subject was "Decision 
of Character." On the back of it was the following letter from 
Ex-President Rutherford B. Hayes. 

Spiegel Grove, March 19, 1888. 

My Dear Sir : — The letter of Mr. Chaplain, written more 
than fifty years ago — soon after I left the Seminary — is an inter- 
esting souvenir. I return it with thanks to you for the oppor- 
tunity to read it. 

With regards to Mrs. P — . 


Rutherford B. Hayes. 
To Rev. J. H. Pitezel. 

Mr. Pitezel further said : "You will see that this letter was 
written before the time of envelopes. It bears the post mark 
of July 2d, 1837 and is sealed by two wafers instead of the en- 
velope that we use now. The chirography would do credit to a 
Philadelphia lawyer, and I doubt whether there is one person 
in fifty that can take this letter and read it off hand. The 


Norwalk Seminary at that time was under the care of Mr. 
Chaplain. There are perhaps very few who know anything 
about Jonathan Edwards Chaplain." 

Mr. Schuyler said : "I went to school to him." 

Mr. Pitezel : "Did you? Good for you. His name was 
Jonathan E. Chaplain, and he was a nephew of the eminent 
New England divine. He was a partner with the elder Thomas 
Corwin, at Urbana, Ohio, some years. He became a Christian 
preacher. At a missionary meeting in 1845, he threw his 
tobacco box into the missionary box, and said that what he had 
been in the habit of using up in that way, he would give to the 
missionary cause." 

Mr. Chaplain wrote about the scarcity of provisions, the 
want of them in the institution and that the trustees, for the 
present, had concluded to close the school until they could 
have better accommodations. He invited me, (I was in Adrian, 
Mich. ) to visit him in Norwalk. I came and stopped over night 
with Mr. Chaplain, but the school had been closed. I had a 
very pleasant visit with my old principal and his family. 

His successor was Dr. Edward Thomson, who afterward 
became one of the M. E. Bishops and President of the Univer- 
sity at Delaware. 

Hon. J. F. Laning, of Norwalk, State Senator, being called 
for, came forward and said : "Mr, President, Ladies and Gentle- 
men : "I don't think that I ought to be permitted to take any of 
the time of this meeting, at least not until more of the older 
people, in whose interest the meeting is held, have been per- 
mitted to recount their reminiscences, and had their say. I 
have only a few remarks to make. I am sorry that I cannot 
greet you'as fellow pioneers on this occasion, but I assure you it 
is no fault of mine. I was not born early enough to get into 
that class. I noted when the President called the roll this 
morning, that he began and gave the post of honor to the oldest 
Pioneers, and very appropriately too. It is very rare that the 


oldest are given the post of honor in public meetings. But it 
is so in a Society of this kind ; it is the old recollections and 
reminiscences that make a Society of this kind interesting, and 
only the old people are able to recount them and they are given 
the preference. An idea struck me when this roll was being 
called, and that was, that not many ladies responded, when they 
were getting the age of the ladies ; I think it is due largely to 
the fact that ladies never grow old like the men do, and I do 
not think that they ought to. Those kind creatures, who do so 
much to promote the comfort of man, ought to have as much of 
life and have it remain with them as long as possible. 

I notice that we have Veterans and Sons of Veterans, and I 
would like to be a son of a Pioneer, and I hope I will live to get 
my name on this honorary list. My grandfather moved to the 
State of Ohio in the spring of 1832 ; in the fall the family came 
and my mother (10 years old) with them. At that time Fitch- 
ville was probably as large as Chicago was then. My people 
moved within three miles of Fitchville, and were the " fartherest 
family in the woods." I have listened to my mother in the early 
days, as she told stories of those times, and I have always re- 
membered her reminiscences. They could sit and look out 
through a hole in the roof and see the stars shining. I have 
been thinking this morning in regard to the condition of affairs 
in those days and the condition that we have at present. I have 
heard of the difficulties that they had, and the great amount of 
work which they did, in order to make this country so they 
could live here properly : they little thought that in so short a 
time, there would be the condition of affairs that there is today. 
The country is burdened with labor ; more men than there is 
employment ; and the question that is going to stare us in the 
face before long will be " what to do with the surplus labor of 
our country." I think this question will be solved. It may be 
that in order to solve it we will have to close our ports to foreign 
immigration; there may be some other solution of the question, 
and we hope there can be. I think there are others whose re- 


miniscences are more interesting than anything I can say to you, 
and I will withdraw and leave the floor to them. 

H. P. Starr called for Mr. O. C. Tillinghast, of Berlin, who 
arose and said : " I am not ready for a speech. I was born sixty- 
four years ago last May, in Berlin township, on the farm on 
which I now live. I remember hearing of hardships my father 
and mother went through in those early days. My father said 
his happiest days and the most comfortable he ever took in his 
life, were those when he would take my sister (Mrs. Emily Otis, 
now of Chicago) on an old plank wagon with him, behind a yoke 
of old stags, and go to prayer meeting on Potato Hill. One of 
our neighbors, Moses Burnham, (when I was five years old) was 
out drawing wood one day, with a pair of old stags, and I re- 
member hearing him say " This land is too wet to grow good 
bull-frogs." That is now the best land in Berlin township." 

Miss Stella Ransom, of Nor walk, gave a fine recitation ; 
James Whitcomb Riley'n poem, "Why Farmers should not 
Complain," which was much applauded. 

G. H. Mains, of Wakeman, gave a brief and interesting ac- 
count of the Potawatomie Indians as he saw them iji Michigan 
in 1853. There was one man in their number who was 108 years 
old. He gave a very entertaining account of the manner in 
which they lived in those days, and concluding, said : " since 
that time I have had the pleasure of again visiting them, and 
some of them have houses two stories high, but it is very seldom 
you see a carpet on the floor or a curtain at the window. The 
name of the chief of the Potawattomies, is Maguago." 

The Auditing Committee reported that the accounts of 
Treasurer Manahan were correct, showing $120.91 received since 
the last annual meeting and $120 paid out on proper orders. 
The report was approved. 

Rev. Mr. Pitezel said : "If my wife was not a little too 
modest she might get up and tell you here, that she was in that 
old log building that stood here where the first building was 


erected in the city of Norwalk. She came here in June, 1818, 
and is here today. I am glad that Norwalk has figured so 
largely as it has in going back to that distant day. I am glad 
that the Firelands Historical Society has taken interest in the 
reminiscences that have been gathered from time to time, and 
given to the press, and have brought out the life memories of so 
many worthy people. 

P. N. Schuyler of the Nominating Committee, made this 
further report : The Committee desire me to report with their 
approval, the following resolution, presented by C. H. Gallup, 
whioh shall bring the working forces of the Firelands Historical 
Society into closer communion with the people ; that we 
may have more active life in it than we have had in the past. 

Resolved, That a standing committee of three ladies be 
elected at each annual meeting, to be known as the Committee 
on Antiquities and Relics, whose duties shall comprise the 
gathering of historic facts relating to the Firelands, and articles 
of interest for deposit as relics; said committee to report to the 
meetings of this society. 

The committee further recommend for that committee, Mrs. 
Cornelia Humphrey, of Wakeman ; Mrs. Mary D. Anderson, of 
Huron ; and Mrs Sarah Brown, of Norwalk. 

The President said: We are favored in being allowed to 
hold our meeting in this historic place where the first dwelling 
house in Norwalk was erected Can Mrs. Sarah Brown tell us 
something about it ? 

Mrs. Brown said : Dear friends of the Pioneer Association, 
I want to thank you for the honor you have conferred upon me 
this afternoon. I come to tell you the stories I have heard from 
my grandparents. I lived with them until I was married, in 
1847. My grandfather, Piatt Benedict, came to Norwalk in 
June, 1815 ; he made bis location here ; selected his home upon 
the very site where we are now staying today. The first log 
house was built here, and the first cellar a very little to the rear 


of this building. My grandmother told me that as they left 
their home, with two covered wagons, three horses and a yoke 
of oxen, and as they entered their vehicle to start upon this 
journey, there were friends gathered to see them ofP, and the 
minister who had so long known them offered prayer that they 
might be protected from the tomahawk and the scalping knife 
of the savage, from the ravenous wiy beasts and venomous ser- 
pents, and that they might be protected in their home in the west. 
They were presented with a package of poor man's grass seed to 
plant in their new home, and grandfather afterward said, " Yes, 
that was yellow dock, and I have been fighting it ever since." 
It exhausted seven weeks in that long journey ; one of their 
horses died My grandfather went forward and tried to get some 
bread at a house, but was refused ; my grandmother did not 
know why it was done. My grandfather returned and brought 
his family here in June, 1817. When they arrived here it was 
found that the log cabin was burned down by the man whom 
my grandfather had left in charge, and they were received by 
the family of Mr. David Gribbs, who resided at Alling's Corners, 
of whom we all know. In the windows for more than a year the 
lights were of greased papers. Some incidents have come to my 
mind. You know those great big fire places that were used. I 
have heard my grandfather say they would hitch a team to a log 
and draw it in for the back log. My uncle was a little mischiev- 
ous and to avoid the duty of building fires, he procured a big 
pepperage back log and drew that in, as it would last some time, 
and the women could lay on the smaller sticks that were needed 
in front. My grandfather was the first postmaster, and my 
grandmother said the first mail that came to Norwalk was one 
newsi^aper and one letter. A letter posted in those days was 
charged 25 cents postage. The first court house was built in 
the year 1818. I remember Uncle Luke Keeler coming and 
blowing his horn there instead of ringing a bell. The plan was 
formed and finally carried to success, of getting the county seat 
located at this place, as they had before claimed it at Milan. 


When the first court was held, my grandmother wanted pie ; she 
had the lard, but no apples, but she had some dried pumpkin 
and she soaked that up in vinegar ; my grandfather got her some 
corn stalks and she made molasses ; and the judges pronounced 
it a very good mince pie and wondered where she got her apples, 
as there were none then raised here. In the old log house built 
on this spot, the first court was held and also the first gathering 
for worship. 

Mr. Ernsberger said the first court house could not have 
lasted a great while, for I paid my tax for building a brick one 
soon after I came here. I will tell you what I can about the 
township of Hartland. When' I came to the centre of Hartland 
the first time, all that looked like civilization was an iron wood 
stake, and that was all the mark that I could see, that looked at 
all like it. 

C, H. Gallup said : "I wish to introduce to the Pioneers 
Mrs. Eliza Ailing. She is the daughter of David Gibbs, at 
whose house my grandfather was invited to stay when he came 
and found his house burned. There were forty staying there 
at that time. Think of that ! would any of you friends, care to 
receive forty into your home ? Mrs Ailing, I want to thank you 
for the hospitalities your parents gave my grandfather's family 
at that time ; yes, 77 years ago she was a member of the family 
that entertained my grandfather and his family. Mrs. Ailing 
can remember the old log house that was burned down, and the 
old brick house that stood where the bulk of this audience is 
now sitting. She would like to talk to you but she is hoarse 
and hardly able to do so." 

J. D, Chamberlain said : "I am very glad to hear from Mrs. 
Ailing ; I think when she entertained these forty in her house 
more than half of them were down sick with fever and ague, 
and that her mother had to do the nursing and cooking for the 
whole of them. I believe that she is the oldest and the only one 
of the original settlers now living in Norwalk. Am I right?" 

Mr. Gallup : "Yes sir." 


Mr. Chamberlain :"I think she has the most interesting 
history that I have ever been acquainted with. I would be glad 
if she w^as able to rela.te it. 

Judge C. B, Stickney said : "I have been here 52 years the 
13th of November last. Shortly after I came here, Mr. Ailing 
was appointed Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas. He filled 
that office for seven years. I knew him well. He afterwards 
became imbued wdth the belief that he w^as about to be called 
hence, and he gave his time to spiritual faith •, he withdrew from 
business and devoted himself to religous work until he died." 

Mr. J. G. Gibbs said : "I am the grandson of David Gibbs 
who has been spoken of here, and Mrs. Ailing is my aunt." 

Mrs. Harriet P. Osborn said : "I have just found out that I 
am a pioneer. I can tell no story of hardships and the very 
early settlement of the state, like those who did come as pioneers. 
I have heard so much about them taking their lives in their 
hands and leaving their homes in the east. It was a red-letter 
■^day when a letter came and father never read those letters until 
the work of the day was done. When I came here (15 years 
after my family), some thought it would be a terrible thing to 
come into so new a country as Ohio was then, and the greatest 
scare that they thought that they could get on me was an item 
they saw in a newspaper, which stated that pork was so plenty 
in Ohio that every third man in Ohio was a hog ; and I had 
the pleasure of writing to them that every third man in Ohio 
walked on his two feet like other people. My father's happiest 
moments were when the old pioneers would come to see him and 
he could talk over the reminiscences of the early days. It was 
always very interesting for me to hear about them." 

Mrs. Sarah Brown then said : " There are two or three little 
stories my grandmother told me about the Indians. The Indians 
were friendly, but still they had fear of them. At one time my 
grand parents had no meat, and before the forenoon was passed 
an Indian came and laid a deer at the door. Another time, my 
mother was milking a cow, when fifteen or twenty Indians came 


riding by hallooing and shouting, and she stood not upon the 
order of her going, but went at once. At another time my 
grandmother was alone ; my grandfather had gone to Vermillion 
for flour. Soon after dark on the first day that my grandfather 
left, a stalwart Indian came to the door and asked my grand- 
mother for ' fire water ;' and she told him she had none, and then 
he asked for cider, and she had none of that, and he lay down 
before the tire ; my grandmother wanted the children to go to 
bed, and they would not. The Indian lay before the fire and 
slept. When he awoke, he said, "Papa no come?" and my 
grandmother said, "he will be in pretty soon." The Indian told 
my grandmother that he was the son. of that white girl (the 
only one of her family that was saved) in Vermont, and he said, 
'I have always been friendly with the whites,' and he took a coal 
and drew upon the hearthstone the map of where his tribes had 
lived, and said with tears in his eyes, ' Now the white man is 
planting corn over my father's grave.' Then he said, 'Papa no 
come, and you no sleep and the red man will go to his brother ; 
if this boy will give me a pine knot and show me the trail, I'll 
go to my brother's.' These are some of the stories that I have 
heard from my grandparents. 

Thos. Stratton, of Hartland, said : " As Mrs. Brown has 
talked about it, I want to say that I can remember when these 
woods were full of Indians. When I would go after the cows 
and be bothered to find them, the Indians were always ready to 
help me home and to get the cows for me. I had no more fear 
of the Indian than I had of the white man, and I never was 
afraid of them. I learned to talk their language and talked it 
until I was eight years old. At the Five Points they had a free 
school where they had procured a log house for the purpose I 
went the first winter. The teacher told my father there was no 
use sending me there; he said he could not learn me to talk, but 
he finally did. I came into the township of Norwalk in July, 
1821. I remember the log house that stood there. I remember 
my father coming home one night and saying that Piatt Bene- 


diet's house had burned down. I remember there was a beau- 
tiful forest back here. I never can remember the time that we 
did not have enough to eat. The woods were full of venison 
and turkeys ; now venison was considered not a very good meat^ 
yet it was better than none. I have lived in this township, or 
just over in Hartland, all this time, and there is nothing that 
does me more good than to hear these Pioneers, There is but 
one or two that came here as pioneers back as long ago as 1816,, 
but there are many of the children. The Government bought 
the Indians out, and they went west. They were a lazy set of 
beings generally, as ever lived. I learned the language because 
I had no other children to associate with and I went to their 
cabins often. 

President Stewart : What tribe did these Indians belong to? 

Mrs. Sarah Brown : They were Sanduskies and Chippewas. 

President Stewart : I came here 52 years ago, but Brother 
Schuyler can beat my record about 8 years. I came here in 
1842, he in 1834. 

P, N. Schuyler said : Mr. Chairman, I could tell you con- 
siderable about matters and thiifgs pertaining to Huron county, 
but I do not propose to make a speech. The history of this 
county, of course, must be interesting to us all, and the events 
of the past, so very important as many of them were, seemed to 
have passed so rapidly that we can scarcely recall them. 

Mr. Schuyler then gave a very interesting resume of early 

C. H. Gallup exhibited the vertebrae from the spinal column 
of a whale, brought from San Diego, Cal., in February, 1873, by 
Wilder Lawrence, who came to the Firelands from Vermont in 
1817, being then five years of age. He died in October, 1877. 
Bones such as this were at that time to be seen in San Diego, 
used as door-steps. It was presented to the Society by Mrs. J. 
P. Lawrence. 

Rev. John H. Pitezc4 pn-sented a book of Latin exercises, 
by Joseph Dana, published in 1833, and Adam's Latin Gram- 


mar, published in 1832, and used by Mr. Pitezel at the old Nor- 
walk Seminary in 1834 and 1835. 

I. M. Gillett exhibited interesting political relics. One 
was a presidential ticket of 1840 ; the candidate for vice-presi- 
dent being Col. Richard M. Johnson, who killed the Indian 
chief, Tecumseh, at the battle of the Thames, ni the war of 1812. 

The following relics were exhibited by J. D. Chamberlain : 
A portion of the "Universal History" published in London in 
1747, nearly 150 years ago. Mr. Chamberlain has the entire 
work of 21 volumes in excellent binding and preservation, and 
values the work very highly. It was brought from England by 
Mrs. Chamberlain's father, and is very rare and valuable. Led- 
ger used by Mr. Chamberlain's grandfather over one hundred 
years ago, showing some curious features of the commercial 
transactions of that day. A small trunk, covered with hide of 
the hair-seal, very rare. The date of 1797 had been inscribed 
on the back, but the trunk is supposed to be much older than 
that. A soldier's liquor flask of the Revolution. The flask is 
of horn and profusely etched, probably by the owner, whose 
name and ownership is there inscribed, " John Oastins, His Cag, 
Camp Hisands, January, 1780." A copy of the "London Maga- 
zine, 1787." A ship's passport on parchment, signed by James 
Madison, President, and James Monroe, Secretary, issued to 
Capt. John Jones, an ancestor of Mrs. Chamberlain, dated 1812. 
Commissions as Major and Lieutenant Colonel to Mr. Chamber- 
lain's father, dated 1805 and 1809. Various deeds .and other 
papers ranging in date from 1738 to 1799. 

G. H. Mains exhibited one of the first coins that was issued 
by the United States government : a " Fugio " cent of the year 
1787. On its face are the words "Fugio — Mind your own busi- 
ness," and the reverse has thirteen links formed in a circle with 
the motto " We are one." 

On motion of P. N. Schuyler, the thanks of the Society 
were unanimously tendered to C H. Gallup and Miss Lizzie 
Gallup, for the free use and preparation of the hall for the pres- 


ent meeting ; to Misses Mabel Gallup, Mabel Link, Matie Smith 
and Stella Ransom for their very pleasant part in the exercises 
of the occasion, and to the citizens of Norwalk for their generous 
hospitality to the Pioneers. On further motion the meeting 

G. T. Stewart, President. 
F. H. Jones, Secretary. 


We take' from " Our Home" this patriotic effusion as to the 
origin of the first United States coin, mentioned by G. H. 
Mains. See page 29 of this Pioneer. 

Franklin, ever thoughtful, hating everything " Baronial," 
Disliked the English looking coin whose origin was " Colonial; " 
And in his thinking moments, while in old Hartford town, 
- Designed a native copper cent, with emblems all his own. 

With blazing Sun and Died, and with legend, "Fugio," 

This coin appeared — a " star in the east "—very apropos : 

It hinted to the people all in language not unkind, 

If prosperity were wanted, their otun business they must mind. 

On obverse side the Sun appeared, apparently from heaven, 

And just below a Dial and the date 1787 ; 

On 7'everse side an endless chain of thirteen links was seen ; 

The big, plain letters, "WE ARE ONE," were nicely placed between. 

To keep this sentiment alive through all the future years. 
The Nation's name around it unmistakably appears ; 
From all the various incidents we find the evidence 
That Franklin to his country gave the first of copper cents. 

Now, all true-hearted citizens, in praise of Franklin join, 
Remembering with gratitude the author of our coin. 

[A prominent motto on the " Franklin cent " is "Mind Your Own 



Pireland^ Mfetorical ^ociet^ 

At Huron, September 12th, 1894. 

The previous meeting of the Firelands Historical Society 
at Huron on February 22, 1875, having occurred in very cold 
weather, when from that cause very few of the people of other 
places desiring to attend, could be present, by general request 
the Board of Directors appointed the next quarterly meeting of 
the Society at the same place, which was held at the Town Hall 
in Huron, on Wednesday, September 12, 1894. 

It was called to order by the President, G. T. Stewart, at 
10 o'clock, a. m., and was opened with prayer by Rev. B. D. 
Dougherty, rector of the Episcopal Church in Huron. 

In the absence of the Secretary, Mrs. Mary Anderson, of 
Huron, and George H. Mains, of Wakeman, were appointed 
Secretaries pro tem . 

C. H. Sprowl, violinist, and Mrs. C. H. Ransom, pianist, 
favored the meeting with some fine music. 

An eloquent Address of Welcome was delivered by C. H. 
Ray, of Huron, to the Society and visitors, in which he praised 
the Pioneers of our country who had hewn out the way whereby 
we may become the grandest nation on earth.. 


President Stewart responded with remarks appropriate to 
the occasion, relating some interesting historical facts. He said 
that this reunion of the Pioneers of the Firelands was commem- 
orative of two important events in their history. The victory of 
Perry over the British fleet on September 10, 1812 and that of 
Croghan over the British and Indians at Fort Stephenson a few 
weeks before. Both illustrated the truth of the common adage, 
''Old men for counsel, young men for war." In both conflicts 
the British commanders were old, experienced veterans in the 
service, while their conquerors were young officers, but well 
educated and skillful as they were daring in their achievements. 
Where all had been terror and flight, among the early settlers, 
before, these two victories brought peace and security here 
to them and their families, Oliver Hazard Perry was born 
in South Kingston, Rhode Island, on August 23d, 1795, 
and was twenty-five years of age when he captured the 
British fleet under Nelson's veteran, Commodore Barclay. 
He was a son of Sarah Alexander Perry, receiving his ed- 
ucation and patriotism so largely from his mother, that when 
the Rhode Island farmers heard of it, they styled it "Mrs. 
Perry's Victory." Major George Croghan was born in Kentucky 
on November 15, 1791, and was less than twenty-two years old 
when he led a column of volunteers from his native state through 
the wildnerness of Ohio to Fort Stephenson, and there, on 
August 1 and 2, 1813, after thirty-six hours of fierce siege and 
battle, defeated the veteran, Proctor, with 500 British regulars 
and nearly a thousand Indians, more than seven-fold the num- 
ber of the small band of heroes under their gallant young leader, 
whose skill ^nd courage made that rude fort impregnable to 
civilized and savage foes combined. This is glorious historic 
ground all about us. He spoke also of the peace victories 
achieved there worthy of a place in history ; such as that of 
John Hoak, who in an open boat, went from Huron to the 
Canada shore, at the beginning of the War of 1812, and brought 
back a load of young apple and pear trees, to start the first 


orchards on this lake shore, now so famous for its vast and val- 
uable fruit culture. One of the first houses here was built by 
him in the year 1810. He spoke of the vessel building industry 
for which this part of the Firelands has also acquired fame, and 
appealed to those engaged in that business for facts and statis- 
tics which the Society can frame into history. Russell & Sprague, 
of Huron, are said to have built the first vessel here, of 30 or 40 
tons burden, called the " Croghan," and another called the " Fair 
American," the latter launched in the spring of 1813. Hewett 
& Montgomery built one of 30 or 40 tons, in the year 1816, 
which was drawn by 40 oxen to the place of launching. The 
Milan Canal Co. was incorporated in the year 1833, and the first 
vessel, a schooner of 100 tons burden, floated in the basin on July 
4, 1839. John B. Fleming was the first white settler here who 
established a trading post early in this century. Jared Ward 
came in 1808. Judge Jabez Wright followed, and he with 
Almon Ruggles, surveyed the township. The first town plat 
recorded in the records of the Firelands was that of Huron, 
which was laid out by David Abbott for himself and John S. 
Edwards as attorney of Kneeland Townsend, on their land here, 
dated June 14, 1811, acknowledged before Jabez Wright as 
Justice of the Peace, and recorded June 18, 1811, by Almon 
Ruggles, as Recorder of Huron county. It consisted of 56 lots 
on the east bank of the Huron river, with eight streets. In the 
center was the public square, of which one lot was given to the 
county for a court house and another for a jail. It is recorded 
in Volume 1, on page 279 of the Huron county records. 

Interesting extracts were then read from a paper prepared 
by I. M. Gillett, a farmer of Norwalk, on the establishment of 
the Moravian Missions on the Firelands in the year 1787, at 
New Salem on the Huron river. The mission was abandoned 
before the white settlers came to Huron. 

" Auld Lang Syne " was well sung by a quartette with piano 
accompaniment, and the meeting adjourned for a generous 
banquet served in rooms of the Town Hall by the ladies of Huron. 




At the dinner a list of thone Pioneers present over 69 years of 
age was taken as follows. 

James Hopkins, Fairfield, aged 89 years. 

I. T. Reynolds, Berlin, " 89, 

Daniel B. Sturgis, Norwalk, 

Wm. B. Welch, Norwalk, 

J. H. Stirling, Olena, 

C. B. Stickney, Norwalk, 
N. Burdue, Norwalk, 
E. P. Hill, Berlin Heights, 
L. Fisk, Berlin Heights, 
W. D. Gurley, Bogart, 
Geo. Burdue, East Townsend, 

D. L. Washburn, Birmingham, 
J. S. Davis, Berlin Heights, 
Mrs. Clarissa Clawson, Norwalk, 
Joseph Reed, Huron,' 

C. W. Manahan, Norwalk, 

F. A. Wildman, Norwalk, 

Geo. M. Darling, Norwalk, 

Hiram Smith, Norwalk, 

J. D. Easton, Monroeville, 

C. H. Jackson, Hartland, 

Luke S. Stowe, Milan, 

Capt. A. A Kirby, Huron, 

U. B. Thomas, Greenwich, 

Capt. C. Woodruff, Peru, 

N. Wheeler, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

C. C. Parsons, Wakeman, 

L. S. Hall, Wakeman, 

H. D. Smith, Berlinville, 

Thos. Stratton, Hartland, 

H. P. Starr, Birmingham, 

Mrs. N. Wheeler, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

John Mafflone. Wakeman, 


X 692250 



W. G. Sage, Huron, aged 72 

Jane Carpenter, Huron, 


Nathaniel McConnelly, Ceylon, ' 


James Douglass, Ceylon, ' 


Eliza Thirley, Huron, * 


O. T. Peters, Berlinville, 


G. T. Stewart, Norwalk, 


J. M. Tuttle, Norwalk, 


John Schafner, Norwalk, ' 

' ' 70 

E. McDonald, Norwalk, ' 


Ellen M. Wykel, Huron, 


Geo. Smith, Avery, 



In the afternoon the meeting was called to order by the 
President at 1:40, and first in order was the exhibition of relics. 

J. M. Whiton made a fine display of Indian relics. The 
surveying tools used in the first survey of Huron county were 
also shown. The original first plat of Huron was exhibited. 
Some books made in the beginning of this century were shown. 
A couple of account books beginning in 1771, by Eliphalet Bar- 
num, of Danbury, Conn., and kept by his son, the first settler of 
Florence township, was exhibited by Geo. Peck, of Florence. 
The accounts were kept in pounds, shillings and pence. Judge 
Jabez Wright's old surveyor's compass, used in making first 
surveys on the Firelands in 1811, was shown. An old Bible re- 
cording births of owners in 1801 and 1807, some books once be- 
longing to the " Social Library," of Greenfield, Mass , geological 
specimens, one being uniquely mounted ; an elk horn warming 
pan; a foot stove over a hundred years old; an elk horn found in 
the wilds of Michigan ; a hetchel used for combing flax ; a piece 
of a wedding set of China from France over 100 years old and 
some pieces of china over 50 years old ; a warming pan of by- 
gone days, and several other relics of the past, were on exhibition, 

Mr. Gallup called attention to the invitation of the managers 
of the Norwalk Street Fair for this Society to make an exhibit, 
and made a motion that the Chair appoint a committee to make 


the necessary arrangements to accept the invitation. The 
motion was carried and the Chair appointed for that committee 
C. H. Gallup, Dr. S. P. Hildreth and Mrs. Sarah Brown. Mr.f 
Gallup invited all the people of Huron and Erie counties to 
bring or send in anything that they may have that will be of 
interest in this exhibit. 

After another fine piece of instrumental music by Mr, 
Sprowl and Mrs. EanSora, Hon. S. A Wildman was introduced 
and gave an interesting lecture on "Roman and Goth, or the 
History of Two Civilizations." It was moved and carried that 
the thanks of this Society be given Mr. Wildman for his very 
able lecture and that it be published in the Pioneek. 

Reports were then called for in reference to the older 
Pioneers who were not present. Mrs. Cuddeback, of Vermillion, 
104 years of age, was reported in fair health. Reports from 
several others, nearly a hundred, were given. 

C. H. Jackson talked about some ancient relics. 

W. D. Gurley, of Bogart, who came to Erie county in 1811, 
and who has lived on the place where he now lives since 1818, 
gave some interesting reminiscences of the pioneer days. 

It was moved and carried that a vote of thanks be given to the 
citizens of Huron for their hospitality and grand entertainment 
today, and to the choir for their beautiful and soul-stirring 

After singing one verse of "America," the meeting ad- 

The Norwalk Reflector says: 

^ A piece of paper, size 4 x 23/^ inches, what might be styled " Conti- 
nental " money, the property of Mr. John Butt, this city, has been shown 
us. It is dated April 10th, 1777. On the face the following is printed : 
" This bill shall pass current for eight shillings, according to an act of 
General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, passed 20th day 
of March, 1777." Signed, M. Shubart, and with another signature so 
dimmed we could not make it out. On the reverse side of the piece the 
following words of warning are printed : "To counterfeit is death." 



Pireland^ Mtetorical ^ocietY 

At Plymouth, February 22d, 1895. 

The Winter Meeting of the Firelands Historical Society 
was held in the Methodist Episcopal Church at Plymouth, on 
Washington's Birthday, February 22d, 1895. 

The, president, Gr. T. Stewart, opened the meeting promptly 
at 9:30, a. m. 

Prayer was offered by Rev. A. B. Wilson, of the Presbyter- 
ian Church. 

In the absence of the secretaries of the society, Henry 
Wilson and Mrs. F. D. Gunsaullus, of Plymouth, and G. H. 
Mains, of Wakeman, were appointed secretaries pro tem. 

The audience sang, "All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name," 
to the tune of Coronation. The following was then delivered : 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen :— I appear before you 
in my official capacity, to extend a loyal welcome to the Pioneers 
of the Firelands ; to swing wide the gates of our little city to 


you, and the best our good mothers, wives and sisters have pro- 
vided for our winter homes is yours, without money and without 
price : and although you may may not find upon the bill of fare 
what your mothers, wives and sisters placed before you in your 
early day, as the venison, the bear and the wild turkey, roasted 
to a nicety ; the dish of hominy, cooked in the kettle swung on 
a crane in the chimney corner, the corn pone baked in the ashes 
upon the cabin hearth ; yet what we have is yours. And as I 
look into your faces and see the lines of hardship and endurance 
traced there by honest toil, and the hair upon your heads bleached 
to snowy whiteness by months and years of toil and labor, I cannot 
help but say, God bless you. You have seen wonderful changes 
since you built your log cabins in the woods years ago. The 
dense forests have disappeared before your ceaseless toil, the 
wild game was killed with your trusty rifles for your sustenance, 
and today where stood your log cabin is a beautiful home sur- 
rounded with cultivated fields. Villages and cities have sprung 
into existence, and where once you saw only the Indian trail, 
now highways and railways ; and on the rivers and lakes where 
the Indian paddled his bark canoe, the great steamers come and 
go, freighted with the commerce of the nation ; and where the 
wild vine clung to the oak, the monarch of the forest, you see 
the telegraph and telephone lines, which circle the wide world. 
Where the Indian wigwam stood in the valley and on the hill, 
the school house and church now stand. 

Again I say. Welcome, thrice welcome, Pioneers of the 
Firelands, for we fully realize but for your courage and energy, 
we would not be here to welcome you, and enjoy the glorious 
privileges as we have to-day. And now as you are on the 
shady side of life, having passed over the hill and are upon the 
down grade, may we by every word and deed make your stay 
with us a bright spot in your journey of life; and when we 
say good bye, we hope to meet you again, and if it be God's will 
that we shall never meet again here, may we each so live that 
we may meet in that great reunion in the Sweet By and By, and 



now may God's choicest blessing rest upon you and yours, is the 
greeting we extend to you. 

The president replied, thanking him for his welcome and 
words bf cheer. He then gave a synopsis of the early history of 
New Haven township, in which a part of the village is located, 
and the early history of Plymouth, especially. He dwelt on the 
doctrines expressed in the Farewell Address of George Washing- 
ton, in honor of whose birthday they were assembled. 

The church had been trimmed with flags and upon the wall 
each side of the rostrum, was hung finely prepared deer and 
panther heads. On the pulpit were primroses and cyclamens 
in full bloom. In front was a flag and relics of pioneer days, 
among which were a well preserved German family Bible, a 
spinning wheel and reel, a flax wheel, some ancient papers, an 
iron lamp, besides many other things ancient and interesting. 

P. N. Schuyler was called upon and gave a history of the 
early settlement and titles to the lands of this state. It was very 
interesting and was all given, including names and dates, with- 
out a word or figure in manuscript, which by a Pioneer in his 
72d year, was proof of a remarkably good memory. 

In the midst of this history the dinner hour was called ; the 
landlord of the hotel across the street opened his house and the 
ladies of Plymouth had prepared a bountiful repast, free for all, 
where some 200 people were fed. At the dinner, a list of the 
names of those present over 60 years of age were taken. The 
following is the list and their postoffice addresses : 

Wm. B. Welch, Norwalk, 
M. Crawford, Plymouth, 
Wm. F. Knight, New Haven, 

C. W. Manahan, Norwalk, 

Mrs. Electa Harding, Plymouth, 

D. H. Young, New Haven, 
J. D. Easton, Monroeville, 
Ambrose Frayer, Greenwich, 
Mrs. D. H. Young, New Haven, 





Mrs. M. Brumbach, Shiloh, aged 75 years. 

E. D. Strong, Plymouth, '' 75 

Mrs, Edward Shennon, Plymouth, " 75 " 

Elizabeth Ruckman, Plymouth, " 74 " 

Sarah Ewing, Plymouth, '• 74 

Mrs. Ambrose Prayer, Greenwich, '' 74 " 

David Lyon, New Haven, " 73 " 

A. D. Stotts, Boughtonville, " ' 72 

Robert C. Wilson, Plymouth, " 72 

Wm. Kirkpatrick, Plymouth, '' 72 

Mrs. John Beelman, Plymouth, " 72 " 

P. N Schuyler, Bellevue, '' 71 

G. T. Stewart, Norwalk, '^ 70 

Thos. Clark, New Haven, , - 70 " 

Mrs. Cylena Tyson, Plymouth, " 70 

Wm. M. Possel, Plymouth, *' 70 

R Emmery, Plymouth, " 70 

E. Giddings, Plymouth, " 70 

Geo. Briggs, Plymouth, " 69 " 

Mrs. S. M. Nimmons, Plymouth, '■ 69 

G. A. Hills, Plymouth, " 69 

Mrs A. Tuttle, Plymouth, " 69 

Felix T. Fenner, Plymouth, " 69 

Mrs. C. J. Reed, Plymouth, '• 68 

Sarah A Youngs, Plymouth, *' 68 " 

A. Tuttle, North Fairfield, '• 68 

Mrs. A. D. McDonald, Plymouth, - 67 

M. L. Davidson, Plymouth, " 67 

Kate Riggs, Plymouth, '• 67 " 

Mrs. Nancey Hilburn, Plymouth, " 67 " 

Wm. Jones, Plymouth, " 66 " 

J. C. Boardman, Plymouth, ** 66 " 

Nancy C. Riggs, Plymouth, '• 66 

J. B. Davidson, New Haven, " 66 '" 

Wm. Graham, Greenfield, " 65 " 



Mrs. M. M. Lewis, Chicago, O., aged 65 years 

Mary M. DeVinney, Plymouth, " 65 

Elizabeth Champion, Plymouth, '* 65 

Mary A. Zeigler, Plymouth, " 65 

Mrs. Elizabeth Possel, Plymouth " 64 

Z, J. Clark, Plymouth, ' 64 

D. C. Woodworth, New Haven, " 64 

J. M. Whiton, Wakeman, " 64 

Mrs. A. D. Stotts, Boughtonville, " 63 

D. H. Reed. North Fairfield, " 63 

Louisa Nimmons, Plymouth, " 62 

R. Gribben, Plymouth, " 61 

G. H. Mains, Wakeman, " 61 

Frederick Layer, New Haven, " 61 

L. C. Heller, New Haven, '' 61 

Mrs. Elizabeth Heller, N. Haven, " 60 

Peter Wright, Plymouth, '' 60 

The president having called for names and ages of the old- 
est living pioneers of the Firelands, it was announced that the 
ladies were ahead ; Mrs. Phoebe Coutant, of Greenwich, then in 
her 100th year ; Mrs. Hannah Cuddebach, of Vermillion, being 
in her 105th year ; Mrs. Rachel Kirkpatrick, of Plymouth, being 
in her 99th year ; Mrs. Sarah R. Atherton, of Greenfield, being 
in her 95th year ; and Mrs. Susan Dubois, of New Haven, being 
in her 91st year. 

The president having stated that Caleb Palmer was the first 
settler in New Haven township who built the first log house 
there in the year 1811, and that he was first postmastor and first 
justice of the peace there, and was also one of the first commis- 
sioners of Huron county when it was organized in 1815, it was 
announced that Mrs. E. S. Harding, a daughter of Caleb Palmer, 
was then in the meeting. 

Mr. Geo W. Briggs, of Plymouth, sang "The Portugese 
Hymn," a solo in the olden style, which was well rendered and 
loudly applauded by the audience. 

The president read an article from the Cleveland Leader in 


praise of the noted Firelands' artist, Frank. H. Tompkins, form- 
erly of North Fairfield, now of Boston. Hon. D. H. Reed was 
called to give a short history of the early life of Mr. Tompkins. 
Mr. Reed exhibited the picture, " Old Age," an early effort of 
the artist, illustrating his talent in painting from scenes of life. 

Mr. Stewart recalled the fact that the first shipment of wool 
from the Firelands was made by Charles "Standart in the year 
1836, when he shipped 300 or 400 pounds of wool from his own 
sheep to his home at Auburn, New York, where it was made into 
cloth and returned here. His success induced others to enter 
into the wool business. Last week, from the village of Plymouth 
over 400,000 pounds of wool were shipped, worth 18 cents a 
pound, over $72,000. Such facts as this form history, and to col- 
lect and preserve them, this society is organized 

A description of the relics was then given. Among those 
on exhibition were some very interesting specimens of ancient 

Mrs. Anson Tuttle gave a good exhibition of her skill in one 
of the " Lost Arts," by spinning flax on a spinning wheel of ye- 

Mr. Geo. Briggs was again called, and led in one of the old 
time hymns, which was joined in heartily by the pioneers 

J. D. Easton gave a description of one of the first school 
houses in Huron county, which was built near where the water 
works building now stands, in Norwalk, with its furniture of 
slab seats, desks and tables. He also mentioned the names of 
several noted men who received their early education in the 
pioneer schools of the Firelands. 

Prof. Griffith favored the audience with a song entitled "A 
Pensive Piano." 

C. W. Manahan gave his experience in pioneer days at the 
Johns hotel in New Haven, where grain was hauled to Milan 
with four and six horse teams. 

Mr. Schuyler gave to the pioneers notice of the death of 
one of their number, Luther Avery, of Groton, Erie Co. He 


also spoke kindly of the late W. W. Drennan, of Plymouth. 

On motion of Mr. Easton, a vote of thanks was given to the 
people of Plymouth for their hospitality and cordial welcome. 
They were also assured by him that at any time they again 
desired to entertain the society, it would only be necessary to 
mention the fact to the directors. Others spoke the general 
sentiment, that they had enjoyed a grand good meeting, and that 
the gatherings of the pioneers are both enjoyable and instructive. 

Prof. Grriffith sang a solo entitled, " Save the Boy from the 
Curse of Rum." After a few short talks the audience sang 
"America," and under the direction of Capt. Grregg, gave to 
"Old Glory " the military salute of three times three and then 


While the surveyor of Huron county was overhauling some old docu- 
ments in his office at Norwalk, he ran across an old survey of the 
Columbus and Sandusky pike which leads from this city via what is now 
known as Hayes avenue. It is dated March 7th, 1846. This road was 
built as a toll road by an act of the legislature passed in 1842 and was 
completed two or three years later. It extends in almost a straight line 
from Sandusky to Columbus, passing through Attica, Delaware and other 
smaller places, running almost parallel to the present Short Line railroad. 
It runs diagonally through the northwest corner of Huron county passing 
through Strong's Ridge. The road has long since ceased to be a toll road, 
but it is still in an excellent condition and is one of the best roads in 
the state. 

According to the data given on the old survey, the road was built 
under the direction of three commissioners, Philip S. Price, George Reigle 
and John Lugenbell, and a surveyor, Azariah Root, who were appointed 
by the legislature. The expense of making the necessary surveys as ap- 


portioned among the counties through which the road was built, was 
as follows : 

Franklin $ 23 66 

Delaware * 39 47 

Marion 37 18 

Crawford 37 65 

Seneca 3173 

Huron , 16 63 

Erie 19 68 

Total. $216 00 

—Sandusky Journal. 


Talk about yer buildin's 

That's het up by steam, 
Give me the old oak fire 

Where the old folks used to dream. 

The tickety dogirons, 

One sided as could be. 
The ashes banked with taters 

That was roastin there for me. 

The dog on one side, drowsin, 

Or barkin nigh the door. 
The kitten cuttin capers 

With the knitten on the floor. 

An me a little towhead 

By mammy's side at night. 
With both my cheeks a-burnin 

From the red flames leapin bright. 

These steam het buildin's make me 

Jest weary fer the blaze 
That was heap more comfortable 

In my childhood's nights an days. 

An I'd give the finest heater 
In the buildin's het by steam 

For the old time chimbly corner 
Where the old folks used to dream. 

— Atlanta Constitution. 



Pireland^ Mfetorical sSociet^ 

At Norwalk, June 12th, 1895. 

The 39th annual meeting of the Firelands Historical 
Society was held in the Congregational church, in Norwalk, on 
Wednesday, June 12th, 1895. 

The meeting was called to order at 10:30 o'clock, a. m., by 
C, H. Gallup, in the absence of President G. T. Stewart; and 
P. N. Schuyler, of Belle vue, was chosen chairman pro tem of the 

In the absence of Secretary F. H. Jones, F. R. Loomis was 
chosen secretary pro tem . 

Mr. Schuyler took the chair and made a few appropriate 
remarks, after which he called upon Mr. Thomas Stratton, of 
Hartland, to open the meeting with prayer. 

Miss Georgie Smith sang a beautiful solo "Say Au Revoir, 
but not Goodbye," Miss Mabel Gallup being accompanist. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read by the 
secretary and approved by the society. 

Upon motion of 0. H. Gallup, the chairman was instructed 
to appoint a committee of five upon nomination of officers for 
the ensuing year. The following gentlemen were named by the 


chair as such committee, viz: J. M. Whiton, Wakeman ; 0. W, 
Manahan, Norwalk ; C H Gallup, Norwalk ; H. P. Starr, Birm- 
ingham ; P R. Loomis, Norwalk. 

Mrs. Sarah Brown, of the committee on relics and antiqui- 
ties, made an interesting report of the exhibit shown by the 
Firelands Historical Society in the Gallup block, during the 
Norwalk free street fair last September, as follows : 

NoEWALK, Ohio, June 12, 1895. 
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, members of the Fire- 
lands Pioneer Society : at a meeting of this society in Huron in 
June, 1894, a committee was appointed to arrange for a collection 
and display of relics, curios, and such objects of interest, rare 
relics, books, papers, clothing, furniture, etc., etc.,. as might be 
offered as loans or presented to said society. To carry out this 
plan a call was made through the papers : To all who had any- 
thing antique of interest, to bring it on or before Monday, Sep- 
tember 24th to the store room, No. 24 in the Gallup block. The 
first article in the list called for rare Indian relics. Mr. D A. 
Cleveland, of this city, and Mr. J. M. Whiton, of Wakeman, and 
Mr. Morgan, of Renappi, furnished large and finely arranged col- 
lections. There were bows and arrows, arrow heads, axes, corn 
mills, skining stones and stones cut with rare skill and workman- 
ship. There were skulls, scalping knives, tomahawks, potting 
hunting knives, a beautiful Navijo blanket and a doll dressed 
in Shoshone battle costume. Of geological specimens, there 
wa-s was a large and choice selection, and for further imforma- 
tion on this subject would refer you to the catologue. The 
stuffed animals, birds, fish, reptiles and insects placed in the 
room by Mr. Cleveland and Mrs. Wilson, attracted a great deal 
of attention, of which they were well worthy. The tropical birds, 
devil fish, sword fish, saw fish, sea turtle, sea tortoise, sea shells, 
sea horses, sea mosses and ferns. The necklaces made from 
tigers claws and teeth, beads, prehistoric images, brain coral, 
etc., etc., dug from 22 feet below the surface while excavating 
for the Central American railroad. One picture, over 200 years 


old was brought by Mr, Brownlee, and Mr. M. Leipsett kindly 
presented a picture of the " Grriffin " the first vessel on Lake 
Erie, in 1679, Many portraits of early settlers were procured 
and hung in good positions . They were a great addition to the 
exhibit, and highly appreciated by the crowd that surged through 
the room for three days. They were not content with seeing by 
themselves but went home and told their friends, their uncles, 
aunts and cousins. There were large oil portraits of Piatt Ben- 
edict and wife — "Uncle Piatt," Judge Baker, his wife, father 
and daughter, Samuel Preston, (father of Mrs. Wickham), Mr. 
and Mrs. Samuel T.Worcester, Judge Ebenezer Lane, C. L. Boalt 
and many other well remembered faces. There was a portrait 
of Washington, U. S. Grant, Abraham Lincoln and Rutherford 
B. Hayes. Of ancient clothing, an old surtout coat, very long, 
with three capes and broad collars, a bell crowned black beaver 
hat, a pair of buckskin breeches, buttoning on the sides from 
knee to hip, calashes, shirred silk bonnets and black leghorn 
worn at the beginning of this century. Ladies' and children's 
dresses of exquisite material, some woven and made by hand. 
In the miscellaneous collection we would mention a large and val- 
uable collection of articles from Africa, collected by Rev. E. H. 
Richards and loaned to the society by his father-in-law, Wm. 
Bebout, consisting of leopard and tiger, wildcat and monkey 
skins, of Zulu spears, bows and arrows, baskets, blankets 
of bark and articles of dress. A finely arranged case of shells 
from the Pacific coast, gathered by M. A. Dunton, who also 
made the cabinet which held them. A rare selection of coral 
and shells from Florida by Mr. Emil Friend. A gold watch 300 
yearsoldof Scotch workmanship, an heirloom, Mr. L. F. McScott. 
Mr. Morgan, of Renappi, had a case with several pieces of 
china, very old and choice. Mrs. D. D. Benedict sent a large 
number of exceedingly choice pieces of family silver and china, 
heirlooms handed down for several generations. Miss Augusta 
Boalt and Carroll Gallup contributed to the exhibit several 
pieces of china and delf. There were two or three cups and 


saucers carried all through the war of the Rebellion and napkin 
rings carved in prison ; one pair by Dr. D. D Benedict from 
beef bones in Libby prison. A large and carefully prepared 
case of coins was brought from Sandusky and was surrounded 
almost constantly by a throng of people, and many pronounced 
it the best they had ever seen. It added a great deal to the 
varied display and deserves favorable mention. Mr. S. P. Town 
had a fine collection of coin and a large number of unique 
articles arranged in a case, thus relieving your committee of a 
good deal of care, for which we thank him. He also had paper 
money, $3, $5 and $10 bills of 1816. Colonial money 1778 and 
one $10 and $20 taken from the dead body of a Confederate 
soldier after the battle of Gettysburg. They were on the state 
bank of Missouri. There were several small collections of coin 
and bills. United States shinplasters, Confederate bills. Colonial 
money and some curious Chinese and Roman coin. Of badges, 
a goodly number. One, a satin badge, worn at a reception in 
honor of General Lafayette, in Washington in 1824, the only one 
now known to be in existence. Of Masonic badges, 83 and 
G. A. R., 54 badges. Among the newspapers there was one 
containing the obituary of General Washington, one " Cleveland 
Advertiser;" Government documents, 1822 ; collection of old 
maps and documents; one "Sandusky Clarion," 1822 ; "Norwalk 
Reporter," 1827 ; one " Daily Citizen," printed at Vicksburg on 
wall paper, just before the surrender to General Grant. Of books, 
quite a number of old Bibles, from 168 to over 200 years old. 
Books in 36 different languages and Bibles in 25 were shown as 
specimens by Robert Kellogg. 

A charming duet entitled, "Till We Meet Again," was sung 
by Misses Matie Smith and Mabel Gallup, with Miss Bessie 
Flinn as accompanist. 

Treasurer C. W. Manahan made his annual report which 
was referred to an auditing committee composed of F. R. Loomis 
and J. D. Chamberlain. 

The meeting then adjourned for dinner. An excellent 


dinner was served in the cliurch parlor by the ladies of the Con- 
gregational church, to which about seventy -five old pioneers sat 
down, and besides a large number of other citizens. 


The meeting was called to order at one o'clock by Presi- 
dent Schuyler who called for reports from committees. 


The committee on nomination of officers reported through 
F. R Loomis, chairman, as follows : 

Mr. President and members of the society : 

Your committee recommend the following as your officers 
for the coming year: 

President — G. T. Stewart, Nor walk. 

Vice Presidents — H. P. . Starr, Birmingham; and R. R. 
Sloane, Sandusky. 

Recording Secretary — F. W. Van Dusen, Norwalk. 

Corresponding Secretary — Chas. A Paul, Norwalk. 

Treasurer — C. W. Manahan, Norwalk. 

Librarian — C. H. Gallup, Norwalk. 

Biographer — F. R. Loomis, Norwalk. 

Board of Directors and Trustees — The president and secre- 
tary, ex-officio ; J. M. Whiton, Wakeman; C. H. Gallup, I. M. 
Gillett, F. R. Loomis, Norwalk : and Bartlett Davis, Hartland, 

Committee on Relics and Antiquities' — Mrs. Sarah Brown, 
Norwalk ; Mrs. Cornelia Humphrey, Mrs. Mary D. Anderson, 
Huron. Respectfully submitted, 

F. R. Loomis, 
J. M. Whiton, 
C. W. Manahan, 
H. P. Starr, ] 

C. H. Gallup, J 



Upon motion, the report of the committee was received and 
adopted and the persons named were declared elected. 

The Auditing Committee next reported through P. R. 
Loomis, chairman, stating that the secretary's books and ac- 
counts had been examined and found correct and that there was 
in his hands $568.60. The $500 being the amount of the Cath- 
arine Gallup publication fund and the $68.60 the interest on 
the same. They also reported that C. H. Gallup and F. R. 
Loomis had money in their hands belonging to the society and 
that there was a balance due the Chronicle Publishing Co. for 
publishing the last number of the Pioneer. They estimated 
that after paying all indebtedness of the society there would be 
left in the treasurer's hands about $80 in cash besides the $500 
belonging to the Catharine Gallup fund. They recommend the 
appointment of an Auditing Committee to adjust all accounts 
owing to and from the society and report to the Board of Direc- 
tors fcind Trustees as soon as possible . 

The report of the Auditing Committee was received and 

A motion prevailed that the chair appoint a committee of 
three as an Auditing Committee in accordance with the above 

The chair announced the names of F. R. Loomis, L. C. Lay- 
lin and J. H. Chamberlain as the committee. 

Mrs. F. S. Lock wood, of Milan, presented an old volume of 
the history of Norwalk, Conn,, and other valuable relics to the 
society which were received with thanks. 

President Schuyler and J. D. Chamberlain made suitable 
remarks about membership in the society and sale of the Pioneer. 

President P. N. Schuyler then introduced Judge Rush R. 
Sloane, of Sandusky, who gave a very fine address on the theme, 
"The Patriot War of 1837-8." A large and intelligent audience 
listened with close attention to this address, and at its conclusion 
Judge C. B. Stickney moved that the society request a copy of 
Judge Sloane 's address for j)ublication in the next number of 
the Pioneer. 


The motion prevailed unanimously and with applause. 

A hearty vote of thanks was also extended to Judge Sloane 
for his valuable and interesting address. 

Miss Edith Suhr, of "Norwalk, recited in a most excellent 
manner, a very cute declamation entitled "Going to Market." 
She was heartily applauded. 

C. H. Gallup asked that L. D. Strutton read a copy of the 
contract for the consolidation of the old Toledo, Norwalk and 
Cleveland railroad with the Junction railroad, into what was 
known as the Cleveland and Toledo railroad and which is now 
known as the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroad. 

Mr. Strutton complied with this request and showed a cor- 
rect copy of this contract made 42 years ago by himself from 
the original contract. He also made some interesting and in- 
structive remarks in this connection, especially as relating to a 
clause in the contract requiring repair shops to be maintaned 
in Norwalk. 

A motion prevailed requesting a copy of this contract arid 
Mr. Strutton's remarks for iDublication in the Pioneer. 

A humorous poem was recited by Mr. Cooper entitled " One 
Hundred Years Hence." 

J. D. Chamberlain presented the following resolution : 

Resolved, That in view of the highly interesting and suc- 
cessful exhibit made by the Firelands Historical Society on the 
occasion of the Norwalk street fair of 1894, the trustees and 
directors of this society be requested to consider the advisability 
of makingc another like exhibit at the contemplated street fair of 

This resolution was adopted. 

The following persons paid fifty cents each and became 
members of the society. 

W. B. Colson, Norwalk. 

Mrs. B. Davis, Hartland. 

Mrs. E. R. Wilcox, Avery. 

A. A. Justice, White Fox. 



Barna Cooper, Clarksfield. 

Upon motion the meeting adjourned. 

P. N. ScHUYLEK, President pro tem. 
F. R. LooMis, Secretary pro tem. 


[Paper prepared by A. E. Rowley, of Nor walk, read at the quarterly 
meeting of the Firelands Historical Society held in Huron, Ohio, on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1894.] 

In the quiet little village of North Fairfield, in the central 
part of Huron County, lives one of the most remarkable char- 
acters in the Firelands. He is an old colored man named 
James Williams, and he enjoys the distinction of being the last 
of the famous Wyandot tribe of Indians, so far as is known, 
now living in Ohio. 

The writer realizes the very natural distrust that is felt at 
the present time concerning the hazy tales of some ancient 
persons who imagine themselves the former body guards or 
especial favorites of Washington or Jackson, and is as skeptical 
as any one in giving credence to their unfounded statements ; 
but in this instance, from the knowledge he has of his inform- 
ant and the verification he has found from other sources of the 
facts stated, he feels that he can sign as surety all our old friend 
offers to the public. 

" Uncle Jim," as he is commonly known, has lived in the 
village of Fairfield for nearly half a century. He is of white 
.and colored blood, of dark brown complexion, straight and well 
cut features, well shaped head, keen and piercing black eyes, 
has a large snock of neatly trimmed gray hair, and small, 


pointed chin whiskers. . He is of medium height, quite active, 
but walks with a slight limp, having injured one of his knees 
scores of years ago, when hewing wood among the aborigines. 
In his dress he is quite particular, and on Sundays (he is a very 
regular church goer) his attire is a model of neatness and 

Ti-ere is something about the keen, quiet old man that 
would attract attention anywhere, and his history is no less 
remarkable than his appearance. 

The first recollection he has is of his foster red parents, 
and from them he learned many facts pertaining to his early 
history. His age is a question of great discussion among the 
villagers, some asserting that he must be fully a century old, as 
they allege he was an old man when he first came among them 
and then looked fully as old as he does today. However, after 
much investigation, I have concluded that he is about 82 or 83 
years of age. He says the Indians told him he was nine months 
old when they took him, and that was at the time of the '' Big 
war " which was probably the war of 1812. He also says that 
he remained with the tribe until he was 19 years old, which was 
perhaps ten years before the Indians went west, and that time 
history tells us, was in the year 1843. 

From the Indians, and from other sources later, he learned 
that his mother, who was a prepossessing white girl of a good 
family, living at East Lancaster, O., became enamoured of one 
of their servants, a large fine looking negro, and that he was 
the result of their strange infatuation. He was taken by his 
maternal grandmother, and kept by her till he was about nine 
months of age. The old lady who felt deeply their shame, 
learned that her two sons were planning to steal the little un- 
fortunate and make way with him, and she gave him to a squaw 
of the Wyandot tribe, who promised to take him to her i^eople 
near Upper Sandusky, O and adopt him as her own. The wo- 
man's husband was named Isaac Williams. He was a fullblooded 
Indian, and was accounted the greatest hunter of the tribe. Un- 


cle Jim remembers these foster parents very kindly, as indeed 
he does all the Indians of the tribe. He describes them as 
being quite civilized at that time, living for the most part in 
frame or log houses, tilling the soil, and living quite at peace 
with the rest of the world. The Wyandots, he says^ had at that 
time, about 600 or 700 people on their reservation near Upper 
Sandusky; and he describes them as people of good habits, in- 
dustrious, and in all their characteristics, "just about like white 
folks around here— some good, some bad," and adds that they 
were far superior to m^st of the other Indian tribes in this 

The Delawares, he says, came next to the Wyandots, whom 
they resembled in being peaceable, civilized, and tillers of the 
soil. They lived between Upper Sandusky and Bucyrus and 
were rather a small tribe. The Senecas lived about Fremont, 
and were also a small tribe, and somewhat more savage than the 
Wyandots. Below all others Uncle Jim considered the "Tawas," 
whom I afterwards learned were the Ottawas, a tribe living 
somewhat to the north. These he describes as being more sav- 
age and darker colored than any of the others. They roved 
over the woods a good deal, tilled the soil a little, and lived in 
shanties of a rather poor grade. They would frequently have 
war dances, at which times they would don their war paint, beat 
a kettle drum, and make the night hideous The W^yandots 
were also accustomed to dance when he first went among them, 
but they soon gave it up, and left the mysteries of the weird 
performance to more untamed "' Tawas " and Senecas. 

The tribes, he tells us, did not mingle a great deal, though 
the Delawares and Senecas occasionally got together. Fights 
among them were quite rare, and they got along well by letting 
each other severely alone 

The Wyandots must have been very good farmers. They 
raised nearly all the staple cereals, had excellent live stock, and 
were quite prosperous, as Jim says he never saw so much money 
as they had. In their politics they were evidently hard money 


fellows, as they had no use for any paper money whatever, and 
were satisfied with nothing but gold and silver coins, which they 
seemed to appreciate as much as their covetous white brother 
now does. They were great hunters, and at this period used 
flint lock guns for all large game. The bow and arrow, however, 
had not entirely outlived its usefulness, and it was still used for 
birds and small game, and was as much a favorite with the 
young Indian boy, as the sling shot now is with our young 
America, though it is to be hoped not half so destructive. Uncle 
Jim had evidently served his apprenticeship with this weapon, 
as he can today use it with foi:ce and accuracy that well shows 
how formidable it must have been in practiced hands. A few 
days ago the writer saw him take down a large bow that he had 
recently made, of such great size and strength that none but the 
most sinewy arm could draw it. He stepped back of his house 
and sent a few well directed shots at an old wash boiler, with a 
strength and accuracy which showed that his hand had lost 
neither its power nor its cunning. A well known citizen o£ 
Fairfield told me recently that when he was a small boy, over 
forty years ago, he saw Jim stand at the foot of a giant forest tree 
with his bow and arrow and shoot at a gray squirrel that was in 
the branches fully a hundred feet from the ground, yet so uner- 
ring was his aim that the animal fell at his feet with the arrow 
through its head. He also relates that on another occasion he 
saw the old hunter fire into a huge flock of pigeons, with an old 
musket he had brought with him from the Indians, and at a 
single shot forty-five birds dropped to the earth. 

The Wyandots were also great hunters and would wander 
far away from home in quest of game. They would go as far 
as Fort Wayne, Indiana, starting in the fall, after crops were all 
in, and returning about the last of the following April. In ad- 
dition to their flint locks they would carry a large knife and an 
iron or steel tomahawk, with which they would often cut down 
trees of considerable size. In these pilgrimages they would 
generally go in small bands, each riding a horse and taking with 


them two or three others to carry back venison and furs, which 
were tightly packed and strapped across the animals' backs. 
They would also have two or three well trained dogs apiece, 
hounds and bull dogs mostly predominating. When they would 
reach a good hunting ground, a bark shanty would be made and 
fitted for the winter. Beds were made of forked sticks driven 
in the ground and poles laid upon them, over which bark and 
dried grasses were placed. Pegs were driven into the walls and 
upon these large amounts of venison were hung to dry Beavers, 
and otters were caught in the rivers, and bears and deer shot in 
the forest To judge of the abundance of game at that time, 
Jim says that at one sitting he once killed four deer, and had 
known his foster father to kill as many as eight in a single dpy. 
Large timber wolves were quite abundant, and the Indian who 
was lucky enough to secure their scalps, received from the gov- 
ernment $5.00 apiece for them. This must have been profitable 
business for the Indians, as our old hero here tells us that he 
remembers one winter when his " old man" made $325.00 from 
the proceeds of his hunting and trapping. 

It is interesting to listen to these accounts of exciting 
excursions and adventures, and our venerable friend recites the 
deeds in which he took so active a part with a fire and enthus- 
iasm that tells only how keenly he would like to live over those 
days again. I was particularly struck with the red man's 
sagacity and keenness, when he told me how the " old man '' 
would send him up large trees to drive out bears when he was a 
boy. They would perhaps come across some huge tree in 
which they would locate a bear in a large hole near the top. 
They would examine the bark of the tree closely, and if they 
found an odd number of tracks, which their keen eye would soon 
discover, as one or three, they knew old bruin was at home 
to receive callers ; but if there were two or four series," they 
knew the old fellow had gone up and come down either once or 
twice, and was visiting some of the neighbors. If they determ- 
ined that he was there, Jim would quietly climb the tree, pound 


on it near the hole with his tomahawk, or if old bruin was too 
sleepy, perhaps poke him out and then get out of the way. The 
old bear would come to his door, start to come out, and when 
his body had got far enough out not to drop back, crack would 
go old Isaac's rifle, and another victim would lie at his feet. 

Jim's knowledge of wood craft must have been very extensive. 
The stories he tells show the greatest insight into the mysteries 
of the forest, and his contact with the red men has left its 
impression. He is familiar with every tree and herb of the 
woods, and the habits of animals and secrets of the hunters are 
all known to him. 

In addition to their hunting excursions, the Wyandots 
would make annual trips to the marshy prairies near Plymouth, 
in Huron county, and lay in a large stock of cranberries each 
fall, and it is probable that they saw a great deal of the Firelands 
in their travels. 

We are told that considerable religious sentiment prevailed 
among these Indians, and the Methodist seems to have been the 
only sect that worked among them. They had white preachers 
mostly, but an interpreter was necessary to translate the sermon 
to the congregation, and Jim tells us that he distinctly 
remembers an old colored man who understood both languages 
well and filled this ofiice. He also remembers well the old 
stone church near Upper Sandusky, so well described by the 
late Henry Howe in his "Historical Collections of Ohio." The 
Indians held revivals and Wesleyanism had the same magical 
effect on them that it does on their white brethren today. They 
became christianized and probably lived up to their profession 
as well as the average convert among us now. 

The tribe spoke its own language, though many of them had 
a fair knowledge of the English. Uncle Jim mastered both, and 
when he repeated to me words from their dialect, I was struck 
by their softness and richness. All their words abound in soft 
vowels and the language has the musical sound so characteristic 
of the Indian names with which we are so familiar. 


At the time of which we write, the chief of the Wyandots 
was a man of strong character and executive ability named Bill 
Walker. He had great influence with his tribe, and maintained 
excellent order among them. Uncle Jim had a very high regard 
for him. He described very graphically to me an Indian 
execution that he witnessed near Upper Sandusky, which I 
afterwards found almost exactly as he had described it, in 
" Howe's Historical Collections." Walker was chief at this time 
and was the leading figure in the proceedings. It seems that a 
young Indian of a very quarrelsome disposition, became badly 
intoxicated, and while walking along with one of the old men of 
the tribe, became engaged in an altercation with him, and 
seizing a large club dealt a terriffic blow that resulted in the old 
man's death. He was given a fair trial by the Indians and 
sentenced to death. Jim was present at the execution, and says 
that never before nor since hcxs he seen so great a crowd- 
Thousands, it seems to him, were present. The grave was dug, 
a uough pine coffin stood beside it, and the multitude was 
gathered on all sides, and it was only with the greatest difficulty 
that the eager crowd could be kept back. The culprit was led 
out by the side of his open grave, and seemed perfectly 
indifferent to his fate. Chief Walker advanced and with great 
dignity read the death warrant The doomed man was then 
blindfolded, and six Indians stepping out, raised their rifles, 
fired, and the murderer dropped dead by the side of his yawning 

A well educated white bystander, who describes the execution 
in " Howe's History," says that Chief Walker was a man of much 
power and ability, and a natural orator. The death warrant 
which he read on this occasion, he says was a model legal 
document, and would have done credit to any of our own 
dispensers of justice. 

The homes of the Wyandots were, for the most part, frame 
houses, plainly furnished, with no signs of carpets or many other 
modern comforts or luxuries, and very often there would be only 
one large room for the whole family. 


The women were fair housekeepers, and our gallant old 
friend, with a merry twinkle in his eye, tells us that "some of 
the girls were mighty pretty, and as fine looking as any of the 
white girls " The women were quite chaste and of a domestic 
nature, and were well treated by their husbands. Sometimes 
they would join the men on their extended hunting tours, and 
would look after the affairs in the hunting shanties while their 
lords roamed over the forest. They were married by the preacher 
of the tribe, according to our religious services, and there 
seemed to be but little domestic discord among them. 

Jim lived with the 'tribe till he was nineteen years of age, 
^nd then struck out for himself. He made frequent trips back 
to the reservation and would have gone to Missouri with them 
in 1843, had he not feared he would be taken as a slave if he 
crossed Mason and Dixon's line. He had been twice married, 
each time to a very estimable woman. By his first wife he 
had three children, one of whom, named Isaac, was killed in the 
late war, and a few years ago his father received $1,600.00 back 
pension money and now continues to draw a neat little sum from 
Uncle Sam every quarter to recompense him for the son's loss. 

His last wife died about two years ago and left him entirely 
alone. He has a very comfortable little home in the western 
part of the village, where he is now keeping bachelor's hall. A 
few days ago, when the writer called to see him, he found his 
rooms nicely furnished and everything looked as neat as wax. 
A large Bible was on his center table, and a good likeness of 
Frederick Douglass adorned the wall. In his kitchen hung a 
well filed cross-cut saw that sees active service every working 
day. He goes into the woods every winter to cut wood, and can 
pull the saw with the best of the young men, and seems as hale 
as he did a score of years ago. He has great will power and 
told me recently that although he had chewed and smoked 
tobacco from the time he was sixteen years old, he noticed about 
two years ago that it was greatly affecting his health and he 
suddenly stopped, and has not touched the weed from that day 


to this. He is very quiet in his ways, and has something of the 
Indian's reticence about him. His language is slightly tinged 
with the Indian dialect, which is somewhat noticeable in his 
speech at times. He is much thought of by all his neighbors 
and townsmen, and has lived an excellent life for nearly half a 
century in the community where he now resides. He is not all 
given to exaggeration, and is regarded as truthful by all who 
know him. A great many of the facts recited above, such as 
the characteristics of the different tribes, the numbers of the 
Wyandots he gives, the Indian execution, the religious features 
of the tribe and the interpreter, and all "the dates as nearly as he 
can fix them, I find corroborated in such works as " The History^ 
of Huron and Erie Counties " and " Howe's Historical 
Collections of Ohio." 

Although past the four score line. Uncle Jim bears few of 
the marks of extreme old age, and it is more than probable that 
he will, in the natural course of events, live to fully round out a 
century. At any rate, he will if his townsmen and all others who 
enjoy his acquaintance have anything to say in the matter. 


Ohio has more counties bearing Indian names than almost any of the 
older western states. Even Delaware county is said to derive its name 
from an Indian word now corrupted beyond recognition. Coshocton 
comes from the Indian name of Goshochquenk. Geauga is from the 
Indian word sheauga, meaning raccoon. Hocking is from Hockhocking, 
Indian for bottle river, the name bestowed upon the Hocking because of 
some peculiarity of its falls. Mahoning is a corrupted Indian word mean- 
ing "the lick," Miami is the Ottawa word for mother, and it closely 
resembles in sound the word "mamma." Muskingum means "the glare 
of the elk's eye," and seems to perpetuate an interesting fact as to the 
fauna of Ohio. Ottawa means "trader," and Sandusky "cool water." 


An address before the Fitelands Historical Society at its meeting in 
Huron, February 22, 1894, by Rev. Charles S. Aves, of Norwalk. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: It was with marked 
pleasure and satisf action that I saw my way clear to accept the 
kind invitation tendered me by your worthy president and my 
friend, Mr, Stewart, to address you upon this happy occasion. 

It is a happy event to me at least, happy be^cause there is no 
little honor bestowed upon a man who is called to speak to the 
pioneers of the country in which he lives. 

And the speaker is happy again because he feels that he has 
a right here. Not so old a right I admit as gome before me, and 
yet my right is as long standing as possible. 

It was sixty and one years ago that my father landed in 
this port of Huron. 

It was about forty years ago, on this Western Reserve in 
Huron county, Kidgefield Township, on a farm, in a little log 
home, that I first saw the light of the sun and heard the prayer 
of thankfulness of my god -given mother. 

I don't know exactly what constitutes a pioneer. If time, 
or birth, or trials and struggles, with love and loyalty, make a 
pioneer, I lay fast hold to that honor. Only one year I lived off 
the Reserve and then to return to only love more deeply her 
fields and streams, her hills and prairies, wood and vale, but 
preeminently her good and substantial people. 

But I must take my mind out of this vein of thought and 


try to travel in a path helpful to us as communities, helpful to 
our dear homes, and helpful to us as individuals . 

We may naturally expect to hear much, at meetings of this* 
nature, about the struggles and the trials and the hardships of 
the past. These always go with pioneer life If the tangled 
thicket is to be converted into the fertile field ; if the wilderness 
is to be made to blossom as the rose ; if the pleasant, comfortable 
well- equipped home of to-day is to take the place of our little 
log structure, there must be struggles, there must be trials and 
hardships innumerable. 

It seems to be a law of this life that the present sacrifices 
for the future. Ever since that first perfect example of self 
surrender on Calvary's Cross, men have been giving themselves 
that others might live. Our fathers cleared the forests, drained 
the fields, let in God's sunlight ; they gave their time, they gave 
their strength, they put forth noble efforts, they spent their lives 
here, that we may have a life which is we think, a blessed 
improvement upon theirs. The true parent bears the burden for 
the child in order that when he gets int j manhood, he can do 
the full work of a man And before I conclude some will 
possibly feel like Asking me why talk about the future ? We owe 
nothing to the future ? My fellow man, I want to answer that 
selfish question now. We owe, sir, to the future everythins:, 
with interest, which we have received from the past, with this 
addition, that which represents the earnest efforts of a noble 
manhood. We should hold fast the blessed heritage committed, 
by our forefathers, into our care and keeping, and " progress " 
should be our watch word from early dawn till late at night. If 
the past has given us blessings, we as men, appreciative men, 
men worthy to live upon this Reserve, should increase and 
multiply those blessings. 

And in speaking of the past, it is well for us to bear in 
mind the fact that we are drawing to the close of the nineteenth 
century. Its sun is dropping down the western sky. 

The century in which we and most of our fathers were born, 


and the century in which they have lived and done their work 
will shortly be over. 

The twentieth century will very soon be asking, '' What has 
the nineteenth century done for us ? " 

For the century near its close there are voices of praise and 
voices of blame. > 

There certainly has been great advance in knowledge. We 
liave gained no small control over the hidden powers of nature. 
We have delved deeply into the mysteries and brought them out 
to the light for man's use. We have taken vast treasures from 
the valleys and the hills and the forests and the depths. 

Indeed it must be agreed upon, that the thing which most 
characterizes our century is the wonderful increase of knowledge. 
So familiar are we with the fact that we are apt to be partially 
blinded to it, but it is the simple truth, that the world has 
increased in knowledge more in the century in which we live 
than it did in the twenty five centuries which preceded it. It is 
a startling thought, and yet it is true. Thinking of human 
knowledge and human discovery as a path along which our race 
has travelled, we have gone as far during the short time the 
Firelands have been in settling, as humanity advanced in 
the full twenty-five hundred years which preceded it. 

The domain which has been conquered by man's knowledge ; 
the splendid victories which have been won; the important 
discoveries which have been made within the memory of some 
of you, is simply marvelous. Why, my fellowmen, some of the 
most valuable sciences have had their birth and development in 
your time. Geology has a history of less than a hundred years. 
It is only lately that that science has begun to turn over the 
leaves of the rocky strata, in which our earth is bound, to read 
the record of creation, So, too, with anthropology. It was 
born but yesterday. Today it is extending its researches to the 
remotest past. It goes down deep into the caves where men hid 
themselves whether five hundred or five hundred thousand years 
ago. It goes into all parts of the world, and turns over that 


which is known as drift upon the earth's surface, telling us from 
the flinty arrow heads, and like remnants of antiquity, much 
about humanity that lived in far off times. They have brought 
the present in close touch with the past. They will take the 
tusk and read the history of the dumb brute creation. With 
the microscope they Wlii search out the mysteries of life away 
down into their recesses. 

Think of the arts which of late years have been brought to 
our use. What splendid triumphs have followed quickly upon 
the discovery of steam and electricity. These are only a few 
examples of many which any intelligent man might name, only 
let us bear in mind they are the products of this our age. 

Hand in hand with this mighty increase in knowledge, i«a& 
travelled down to our time an increase of human liberty. 

For with a better and wider understanding has come a deeper 
regard for human rights. With the decay of ignorance and super- 
stition have come victories for freedom of thought and freedom of 
speech. Indeed with this advance in knowledge, has come a 
higher estimate upon the dignity and worth of man. With the 
light which dispels darkness, has come in the dawn of hope and 
victory for humanity 

I ask you seriously, if all this is not true ? Can we speak a 
word too highly in praise of this nineteenth century ? When we 
think of all it has given us, all that is being done for us, we must 
thank God that we are privileged to live in this age, to be a 
part of it, to be trained in it, to share its struggles, to grow with 
its growth, to strengthen with its strength, to glory in its 
victories, and to rejoice, that when the sun of a new century 
gilds the eastern hills we can commit to the care and keeping 
of our posterity an heritage, rich in that which is good. Yes, 
this century is the choice flower of all the, ages. It is the most 
splendid century which was born out of darkness and which will 
soon into darkness return. 

But in all these high sounding words of praise and thanks- 
giving, is there not to be heard a single word of blame ? Have 


we yet reached the goal of perfection ? Are there no weak places 
that should be strengthened ?. No faults that need correcting? 
No enemies yet to conquer ? No victories yet to be won ? 

These fine lands of ours would almost be heaven, if all these 
questions could be answered just as we wish they might. But 
we must not be blind to the fact that our _ " 3ture is not a perfect 

As our ear is atuned to the sweet melody of praise and 
thanksgiving, so must we hear the voices of blame. There are 
those voices. And sometimes we are inclined to think they 
are almost so strong as the voices of praise. 

Some men tell us we have lost much, as well as gained much, 
since the beginning of this century. They tell us we have lost 
those old reverences which characterized the early settlers of 
this beautiful land. They tell us we are not in happy 
possession of those firm and fixed confidences, and those firm 
faiths which held so great a place in the lives of our forefathers. 

They tell us again, that we no longer draw the sharp, 
dividing line between that which is true, and that which is false ; 
that the children have not the same trust in those things in 
which the parents placed implicit trust. 

They tell us, too, that we have a tendency to argue everything, 
that can be argued, out of existence by our play at human 
sophistry. All things are brought into the arena to be measured 
and tried by human standards. 

And they tell us, too, that we are not made of the same 
substantial stuff as were those who journeyed westward from New 
England, to clear the forests and let in God's sunlight, that a 
generous soil may bless the labor of future generations. 

The voice of blame is harsh and sometimes cruel. We are 
told that this is a materialistic age. That all these advances 
which we take so much pride in, have been worked out through 
some desire for self-advancement. They say the heroic days are 
past. That when men make any struggle, or bear any burden, 
or fight any battle, it is only for some vulgar, temjDorary and 


material success. Oh, they tell us that we have lost the firm 
hold that our fathers had upon things eternal ; that we work for 
the day, for the hour, for tie little present. 

And they tell us that our men and women are perverse ; 
that our chief aim is to be entertained with that which is shallow 
and weak ; pnd consequently we have not the same intellectual 
grasp upon important subjects ; that we are more superficial 
than our fathers. 

They tell us that the men and women who were here just 
before us were noted for their strength of character. That they 
may have had more simple ways, but they were better ways. 
That they were of a more plain faith, but that they were of 
better faith. That they did not deal in such large figures, but 
that they were better figures. That they were simplicians rather 
than politicians ; artless ; undesigning instead of being cunning 
and artful. 

Men who praise the past and blame the present, would make 
us feel that we have sadly degenerated ; that we have proven a 
dishonor to father and mother ; that we have ignored much that 
was so precious to them. They say, yes, yours is a busy age ; 
you are constantly planting and reaping ; your homes are more 
comfortable ; you are living in something of luxury ; marts, too 
are thronged ; business is real ; men are in earnest in all the 
temporal activities of the land. The patient air is laboring 
under reverberations of bargain and exchange. But religion, 
which meant so much to the pioneer on this Reserve, is too often 
treated as something effete ; worn out with age ; a relic of an- 
tiquity; a companion with superstition and darkness; too old a 
thing and too solemn a thing for this age of boasted civilization. 

Ah, my fellowmen, there may be some truth in this voice of 
blame But if there is something which is a little extravagant 
and forced in the language of praise, there is that which is a bit 
shallow and irrational in this voice of blame. 

I still claim this to be the flower of all the ages. A question- 
ing age ? Yes. And better for its being a questioning age. All 


things, religion as well as everything else are better for being 
tested and tried. 

We may not have the reverence for mere titles we once had. 
Among us kings and queens no longer reign, by the grace of 
God. We no longer reverence a man because he is a clergyman. 
We have gotten down to a more solid basis. Mere symbols of things 
count for nothing, but the things themselves count for much. 
The mere shadows have passed away; the realities alone remain. 
We reverence leadership, not titles. We want men who are able 
to guide, able to instruct, able to control. We want the power of 
intellect ; we want the heart that beats in sympathy with that 
which is true and noble ; we want the strong right hand that is 
able to lead, and lead wisely. We care nothing for titles, we 
want the man, the God made man who is living the Christ life, 
and we are quick to give him reverence, let that leadership be in 
matters civil or ecclesiastical . 

We have no reverence for empty crowns. That is the spirit 
of this age. It does not seem to me to be frivolous, but rather 
exceedingly earnest and genuine. 

And with respect and love for the pioneer do I say, there 
was a something in his faith which we are the better for not 
holding, a something which ought to have been cast 
away never again to return. We have done this, and in many 
cases it has been done wisely and well, for God's service and 
for the betterment of man. 

Our faith, expressed in formulas, may not be just the same 
as that held by our forefathers, and yet we have a faith which 
lives and works and helps men on to a better appreciation of 
their rightful place in the world. 

We believe that genuine character never stood for more in 
the world than it does today. 

We certainly are in the midst of trials, perplexities, 
sorrows, pains and griefs, and yet we are confident that never 
before has there been so much of the Christ love abroad in the 
land as now. 


We are not formulating our faiths with so much accuracy 
as we once were, it is true. And we are not weighing and 
measuring our fellows by the measurements and weights which 
were once considered the proper standards. But there is much 
faith among us, and that too, of a living, active, helpful kind, 
So thoroughly do I believe this, that I hesitate not to say, that 
this is the most serious and earnest age that the world has yet 
seen. And at heart it is a deeply religious age, compared with 
the centuries past. If the skeptic has cast his thoughts abroad, 
you will notice it is a rare thing if those doubts are not honest, 
serious doubts, forming a beautiful contrast to the frivolous 
unbelief of the past age. Even the doubts of today are 
profoundly earnest doubts. And I venture to say, these doubts 
are simply the legitimate fruits born of the harsh and severe and 
most faulty theology of yesterday. 

Men could not be made to think hard and cruel things about 
God and cold logic sometimes took them away from God, 
or rather away from what the theologians have told them they 
must believe about God. Oftentimes these men stand for 
objectors of Christ. When in reality, they only reject some 
man's or some set of men's theory about the Christ, 

It is safe to say, we will give the twentieth century a better 
theology than we received from the eighteenth. Safe to say, 
the twentieth century man will have more helpful and more 
noble thoughts about God than our forefathers committed into 
our care and keeping. It is safe to say, theology, the queen of 
all the sciences, has had her advances in this progressive age. 
No science has made greater advancement. 

And again, if this has been a questioning age, it has been a 
question answering age. If we have been putting the most sacred 
things through the crucial test, we have found that those things do 
not fail us in the supreme hour of need. And all this questioning 
has been serious, honest questioning. And yet as we stretch 
our eye over the field, we see almost countless problems yet to 
be solved. 


We will hand to our children a long list of serious questions 
which it seems we are unable to answer. How many and how 
intricate are the problems which stand all about crime in its 
many phases! And they are just as numerous about pauperism 
and ignorance and intemperance. And then what problems ask 
for a solution touching labor and capital ! These two strong 
forces stand eyeing each other as if they were the deadliest 
enemies, instead of, as they really should be, the strongest of 
friends. We have been trying, all through this century, to 
answer these questions. They have been questions which have 
worried and worn humanity : We think, some of us, that a 
universal franchise and a universal education will prove a blessed 
panacea to all the ailments which society and politics are heir to, 

But with all respect to many earnest minded men, let me 
say, Mr. President, as my honest opinion, we may place the sacred 
ballot within the hands of our entire population, men, women 
and children, white and black, native and foreign born, and yet 
the desired relief will not come. We cannot vote aw^ay crime. 
We cannot annihilate intemperance by a plurality voting in 
favor either of moderation or lorohibition. 

We cannot convert poverty into riches through any amount 
of legislation. The statute books may be packed to the full with 
good laws, but they will be useless, until the people are led up 
to that point in good, strong, manly, christian character, when 
they will appreciate and want to live by that which is in all 
things good and noble. It is hard to legislate, to *any good 
effect, much in advance of the moral standards set by the people. 

We are educating the masses, much to our praise, let it be 
said. Everybody is being educated and yet we do not see the 
long expected abatement of crime. Penitentiaries are filled with 
educated men. The better the education, the greater the 
opportunity to commit crime You must first teach the man to 
write, before he can forge your name to a bank check. I under- 
stand the leaders among the communists and nihilists, the dis- 
turbers of peace and committers of great crimes, are, nearly every 


one of them, college bred men. No! universal education 
will not do for the solution to all these problems. The Son of 
the living God was crucified by the leading men of the best 
educated nation in the world. 

There will be crime and pauperism, hard gringing poverty,, 
and intemperance in all its hideous phases, and jealous contention 
between labor and capital. Yea, there will be all these sad things 
to mar our happiness, law or no law, education or no education, so 
long as man will not recognize that old law of Confucius, which 
was emphasized by the Divine Master, " Do unto others as ye 
would that they should do unto you." 

We will pass out of the century with as deep a mystery 
about pain and suffering as there was at the beginning of the 
century. And the sorrows of the world, the moanings and cries 
of pain, yes, the pitiful dumb sufferings of men can be heard 
plainly by the one who has a warm sympathy with his fellows, 
and these cries plead with us for an answer and a help. They 
ask us to stop crime ; they ask us to settle forever these awful 
disputes between labor and capital ; they ask us to put poverty 
far from our land. But we are, some of us, commencing to look 
upon these things as almost a necessity. They say these things 
always come with an advanced civilization. We are growing 
very much and very fast like the old world. We are becoming 
either very rich or very p jor. The fire for a few weeks goes out 
under the boilers of our factories and there is wide spread 
poverty. 'Work ceases at the mills and the children cry for 
bread. Every well equipped county, even in the most prosperous 
times must have its well filled infirmary. And that too, in a 
young and great nation where but a small portion of her generous 
soil is under cultivation. It seems that there should be hardly 
a reasonable excuse for poverty here. And yet it exists. 

We have not stopped crime. We have multiplied our 
school houses, but we have not stopped ignorance. With all our 
improvements in mowing machines and threshing machines and 
steam plows, there is more hunger and distress in the land than 


when our fathers used the sickle and the flail. Our improve- 
ments have neither put bread into the mouths of the starving, 
nor diminished the aggregate of human suffering upon the earth. 

And yet I still claim this to be the best age the world has 
ever seen. The ethics of the times may be faulty. We may not 
have the same respectful consideration for our weak brother as 
we have for the strong. The i3olicy of "The survival of the 
fittest," seems to be in the air, and we call the " fittest," that 
which is strongest. 

We have great honor for the one who is intellectually a 
giant. We have great honor for the one who is financially a 
prince, — sometimes more honor than for the one who is rich in 
Godly character. But these things will right themselves. As a 
rule we put honor where honor is due. And although thick clouds 
may at times gather about us, we Americans are men of hope. In 
all the severe crises which we have j)assed through, in not one of 
them did we sit down in despair. Why ? Because underneath 
all this fast and faulty civilization, as some are pleased to call it, 
we have our father's deep faith in a God who is on the side of 
men ; on the side of abused men ; on the side of weak men ; on 
the side of the oppressed ; on the side of the down trodden and 

And after all, my fellow men, it is only a firm faith in God, 
and a faith firm enough, sirs, to prompt us to follow closely His 
will, which will lead us through any crises — out of the shadow 
into the light, out of error into the right, out of mistakes and 
failures into certain victory. 

Let an individual forget his God and he goes wrong. The 
same is true with the nation, which is made up of individuals. 
The more closely we follow God the more closely will we come 
to the rightful solution of the intricate and knotty problems 
which so vex serious minded men today. 

Poor France has forgotten her God, shut Him out of her 
civil affairs, out of her schools, and out of her homes. And as 
a result, she has a society completely honeycombed with vice . 


No man, no home, no nation and no institution can go long 
against God's everlasting and universal laws without coming 
to ruin. 

If you love your country, then be a Grod-loving man. If 
you love your home, then be sure you emphasize God in that 
home. If you love your God-given being, then form your life 
after the perfect pattern of the Divine Master. 

Be a christian man and you will be a noble man. Take the 
large, broad, loving, fatherly doctrines of the Lord Jesus Christ 
into your home and it will be a happy home. 

Give your country the love and loyalty of one who loves God 
and his fellowmen, and you will have for your country the best 
gift in the possession of man. 

In this way you will be doing a man's full part in building 
up the grandest civilization of which man has yet dreamed. You 
will be doing your part to reproduce, just here upon these 
Firelands, which are so dear to us, a type of God's spiritual city 
in the heavens. A city where righteousness, justice and mercy, 
kindness and pitifulness are practiced between man and man. 
A city, clean, sweet and pure. A city where there is no 
oppression, no crime, no poverty, no intemperance, no evil. A 
city sanctified and blessed of God. 


The New York Sun of July 22, 1895, said : " Since The Sun began the 
search for centenarians about a year ago hundreds of other papers all over 
the country have followed its example. Not far from a thousand cen- 
tenarians of both sexes, white and black, must have had their names 
printed. It would be impracticable to make a complete list of them, for 
some take their departure every month while other people reach the 
hundredth year of their life." 


Of Hon. Rush R. Sloane, delivered June 12th, 1895, at the Annual Meeting 
of The Firelands Historical Society, in Norwalk, Ohio. 

The following correspondence explains itself: 

Norwalk, June 15th, 1895. 
Dear Sir: — The Firelands Historical Society, on the 12th 
inst., with entire unanimity, passed a vote of thanks to you, for 
your able, eloquent and interesting address, and also passed 
unanimously and with applause a motion requesting a copy for 
publication in the next number of the '' Pioneer." 

Your compliance will be duly appreciated by the Society 
and afford much pleasure to your many friends on the Firelands 
who were unable to be present at our annual meeting. 
Very truly yours, 

F. R. LOOMIS, Secretary pro tem. 
Hon. Rush R. Sloane, Sandusky, Ohio. 

Sandusky, June 17th, 1895. 

Dear Sir: — Yours of the 15th is received and the request 

is with pleasure acceded to. 

Herewith find a copy of my address at your disposal. 

Very respectfully yours, 

F. R. LooMis, Esq. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, Fellow Pioneers: 
Seven years ago the last birthday of the immortal Washington 
it was my privilege to address this society, at a very large and 


interesting meeting at Milan. In the years since gone by, what 
ravages has death made in our numbers ! How many of our 
members have fallen by the wayside ! We miss their familiar 
faces amid the scenes of our daily life. How forcibly are we 
reminded how frail and brittle is the cord which binds us to life ! 
We see our friends around us in the morning and in health, and 
ere the sun goes down, the golden bowl is broken, the dust 
returns to dust, and the spirit unto God who gave it. 

Again it is my pleasure to meet you this afternoon, in the 
beautiful "Maple City," the pride of the Firelands, in response 
to the invitation of the trustees and directors of the Firelands 
Historical Society, to address you upon a subject of my own 
choosing. I have had some perplexity in selecting a topic, as 
historical incidents connecting the Firelands with pioneer times, 
have been so industriously searched for,and so fully written upon, 
that it is difficult to find anything new. And yet, to be 
appropriate, an address upon this occasion should have some 
reference to those days, and be connected with the Firelands, 
and of events occurring long, long ago. 

After some reflection, I have chosen a subject that I do not 
find has heretofore been discussed or presented before this 
society in all the long years of its existence. Incidents and 
events that will be new to many in this audience, and wholly 
unknown, perhaps, to others, and yet, which were of exciting 
interest at the time of their occurrence, and for nearly two years 
possessed the public mind more than any other events of the day. 

My topic is, " The Patriotic War of 1837-8, and some of the 
Causes Leading Thereto." Impossible as it will be for me to 
present, in the address I shall make you on this, occasion, 
anything more than a brief allusion to some of the causes and to 
some of the occurrences connected therewith, yet the events 
which I will narrate, may rescue from oblivion perhaps, the 
connection of the Firelands with those occurrences. » 

It is not easy to realize the ever changing circumstances 
surrounding our social, as well as our political and national life. 


Tiie wings of time are noiseless, the sun rises and sets as it did a 
hundred years ago ; the grand old ocean sings the same music 
that it did when America was first discovered ; the mountains 
and the sea remain as they were created ; not so with man ! 

The events to which I shall call your attention, occurring 
on the Firelands were some of them within my knowledge, and 
some within my sight. And yet the actors in those scenes have 
passed away. Scenes of excitement that then possessed the 
public mind are no longer thought of, indeed are almost 
forgotten. In some of these events, not a few of our earlier 
settlers upon the Firelands were participators. 

The financial panic of 1836 and 7, under which our country 
was then suffering, the general commercial and business distress 
following had created great unrest and business depression and 
general dissatisfaction among the people of this section, as well 
as generally over the Northern states, and had especially 
prepared- them for experiment, and even for open violation, of 
the neutrality obligations existing between the United States 
and Great Britian, as effecting her Canadian provinces. 

Public meetings were held upon the borders, within from 
forty to sixty miles of the Canadian line, as far east as St. Albans 
and Burlington, Vermont, and west as far as Port Huron and 
Detroit, Michigan. Almost every school house was occupied, 
volunteers raised in nearly every county, and sympathy expressed 
and money, arms, the munitions of war, food and clothing freely 
and liberally subscribed. The secret organization known as the 
''Grand Eagles" was in almost every county; one existing in 
Cuyahoga county, at Cleveland, and one in Huron county, at 
Sandusky. All this was done in the interests of the " Patriot 
War," and of the insurgents in Canada. Well do I remember, 
though only a boy of nine years, the public excitement which 
prevailed and the martial spirit and feeling of the people. 
Hunters' Lodges were later organized, and at one time, it was 
stated that over two hundred thousand people were interested 
and engaged in supporting and assisting, as best they could, the 


cause of the patriots in Canada. A convention of the Hunters' 
Lodges of Ohio and Michigan was held at Cleveland, from the 
16th to the 22nd of September, 1838, and seventy delegates were 
present . 

Of the causes of this war, or rebellion, as it was called by 
England, I shall only briefly speak, as they date back to the 
English conquest of Canada, when the country was captured 
from the French, when Montcalm was defeated by Wolfe, and 
Quebec taken at the cost of the lives of these two famous 
generals upon the plains and heights of Abraham. 

The English treated their Canadian subjects without 
reasonable consideration, excluding from the legislature all 
natives of Canada, and reserving the right to control the expend- 
iture of all the receipts from, taxation. The troops of French 
Canadians drafted by General Gage, to revenge the Indian 
massacre of the garrison at Mackinaw in 1763, were treated as 
slaves or beasts of burden, while the British regulars lived at 
their ease. 

The country was divided in 1791 into Upper and Lower 
Canada, and then under the cry that the French intended by 
plotting to break their English yoke, even more severe and 
repressive measures were adopted. Thus matters went from bad 
to worse. Agitation spread throughout the Canadas. The Sons 
of Liberty were attacked by the "Doric" (a loyalist club), 
swords were used and firearms discharged. While none were 
killed, many were wounded. Mass meetings were held over 
Lower Canada, and the government becoming alarmed caused 
warrants to be issued for many of the leaders. Other arrests 
were made and soon the jails of Montreal were filled with 
prisoners of state. The British troops were then ordered to 
suppress the growing rebellion; and when Sir Francis Bondhead, 
to carry the elections for the government party in the Canadas, 
resorted to severe and most illegal means, he carried despair into 
many Canadian hearts where hope, until then, had continued to 
abide. Rapidly, now, was the crisis approaching ; first in 


Lower Canada was it to come, and then the western province 
was soon to be involved. 

On October 22nd, 1837, five companies of British infantry, 
a detachment of cavalry and one gun, under command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Gore, were repulsed by the rebels after a 
six hours fight. The patriot forces numbered about 800 men, 
only part of whom were armed. On October 25th, 1837, in an 
engagement at St. Charles, the patriot forces were defeated, 56 
killed, 125 wounded and 30 taken prisoners. The British lost 25 
killed and 10 wounded. 

.The next engagement was on the 14th of December, 1837? 
about twenty miles from Montreal, at St. Eustache, at which 
place the patriots under Dr. Jean Chenier, had a force of 500 
men. Sir John Colburn moved against them v/ith 2,000 men- 
Only 225 of the rebels stood their ground and barricaded them- 
selves in a church. The British cannonaded the building, and, 
after a few hours, compelled its vacation, and to escaioe burning, 
the patriots came out and were shot down, neither asking nor 
receiving quarter, and over 100 were killed. Capt. Francis 
Marriat, the celebrated English novelist, was at this battle, and 
it ended for a time the rebellion i,n the lower province. 

The scene is now shifted to the upper xarovince, where the 
inhabitants, as well as the rulers, were of British origin, and 
the jealousy of race did not enter into the strife as it had done 
around Montreal and Quebec. 

The ruling party were men whose ancestors had adhered to 
the British crown in 1776. They had received large grants of 
crown lands, and their descendants had held the offices and were 
known as the " Family Compact Party." The British par,ty were 
largely Irish Orangemen and bitterly opi)osed to Roman 
Catholics. They were both jealous of each other. The result 
of these two parties was the Reform party, composed 
of a better class of emigrants from the British Isles, and of all 
their leaders, none was more x^opular than William L. McKenzie. 
He was an editor and his just criticisms so enraged the Tories, 


that a mob at Toronto, threw the type and his press into the bay. 
He resumed publication, and on the floor of the House, was: 
foremost in his denunciations of the party in power. He wa^ 
expelled from Parliament. His constituents re-elected him. 
Expelled five times he was as often re-elected ; once elected 
while in England to present a petition to the Imperial Parlia- 
ment to redress the wrongs of Canada. On his return he became 
so obnoxious that a price was set upon his head, and he fled to 
the United States, and established his headquarters on Navy 
Island, three miles above Niagara Falls in Niagara river, and 
organized the provisional government of Canada. Script was 
issued, and each recruit was offered $100.00 in silver and 300 
acres of land. About this time meetings were held, as heretofore 
stated, in Vermont, New York, at Cleveland, at Sandusky, at 
Norwalk, at Maumee, Toledo and at Detroit. The object of 
establishing: the headquarters of the Patriots at Navy Island^ 
was to avoid violating the Neutrality Laws of the United States^ 
as the Island belonged to Canada. 

Following the excitement first kindled in the Canadas^ 
engendered by the meetings held along the border in the States, 
fanned by the lodges established within our lines, the flame 
of insurrection was not arrested by a mere line of jurisdiction. 
It agitated the frontier of the United States from Vermont to 
Michigan. Itinerant refugees were everywhere to be seen 
organizing their friends with a view to a descent upon the 
Canadas. Navy Island was seized by Mr. McKenzie and 
Rensselair Van Rensselair on December 13th, 1837, and a 
provisional government was formed with only 26 men at first. 
The number swelled by December 29th, to nearly 800, many of 
whom were Canadian subjects, and Van Rensselair was made 
General in Chief. The arms and provisions were chiefly obtained 
from the United States, The invasion of Navy Island was soon 
followed by a very serious incident. A small steamer called the 
''Caroline," commanded by Captain Gilman Appleby, a man 
since well known upon steamers of Lake Erie, was engaged to 


act as a ferry boat between Navy Island and the American shore- 
The first night the boat commenced her trips the British fitted 
out an expedition, under a Mr. Alexander McLeod and chose to 
violate our territory by boarding the unarmed steamer, as she 
lay fastened to the. wharf in Schlosser The boat was full of 
people who had been attracted to the frontier. One citizen was 
killed and others wounded. The boat was then cut loose, 
towed into the middle of the river, and set on fire, with one or 
m^re of the passengers and crew on board. Soon the burning 
steamer was seen to move upon the river, swiftly and beautifully 
it glided along, the thrilling cry of the living souls on board, 
with the thunder of the awful cataract, more distinct in the 
midnight hour, horrified every spectator, as they watched the 
fate of their fellow beings, which no power of theirs could avert, 
until soon the ill-fated steamer vanished into the fathomless 
gulf, amid the surrounding darkness. 

The incident created a general feeling, that a great outrage 
had been committed by the British upon American soil, and it 
influenced and inflamed the people along the border, until a 
general war with England was the popular cry. One verse I 
quote, taken from the "Rochester Democrat" of that time. 

"As over the shelving rocks she broke, 
» And plunged in her turbulent grave. 

The slumbering genius of freedom woke, 
Baptised in Niagara's wave ; 
And sounded her warning tocsin far, 
From Atlantic shore to the polar star." 

The news of tie burning of the "Caroline," and of the 
murder of Durfee, did not reach Washington until the evening 
of January 4, 1838. 

It must be remembered that at that time, we had no fast 
mail trains, no electric wires or telegraph, but were dejDendent 
upon the old fashioned stage coach communication, and the 
period from the 30th of December to the afternoon of January 
4th was required to carry this very important information of the 


greatest international concern, from Buffalo to Washington City^ 
a distance of only 600 miles. 

The President happened to have invited to dine with him 
that evening, Henrj/ Clay and nineteen of his Whig friends^ 
with four Democrats, General Scott being one of the Whigs. 
The dinner hour had long gone by, all the guests had arrived 
and yet the President was absent. It became known he was in 
counsel with his cabinet. The Whigs, in jest, inquired of the 
Democrats if the President were about to resign ? All were 
equally ignorant, happy and hungi-y. At length the President 
came in, and to General Scott and Mr. Clay, whispered the news, 
saying to General Scott : " Blood has been shed. You must 
hasten to the Niagara frontier. The Secretary of War is now 
writing your instructions " These, dated January 5th, 1838^ 
gave large discretionary x^owers to the general. At the time we 
had no regular army at hand, as all the regular troops had been 
withdrawn for the Florida War. 

General Scott was authorized to confer with the United 
States district attorneys, with the governors of the states, as to 
calling out the militia, and to direct the United States marshals. 
The situation was most critical. The excitement along the 
northern border had been increased by the burning 
of the "Caroline," and by the invasion of our territory; 
feelings of revenge and sentiments of patriotism mingled together. 
Citizens seized arms and marched to the frontier. Public 
meetings denounced the wanton outrages. The press aided in 
inflaming the general excitement, and nearly 2,000 militia men, 
guarding the frontier of the State of New York, under General 
Burt, were with the greatest difficulty prevented from joining 
the insurgents and patriots on Navy Island, 

The peace of the world was in jeopardy, for a war between 
the United States and Great Britian would involve other nations. 
The President informed Congress that a demand for reparation 
would be mftde forthwith. 

General Scott, without delay departed for the Niagara 


frontier, going by way of Albany, where he induced Governor 
Marcy, as well as Adjutant General McDonald of the state of New 
York, to join him, so that no time might be lost in correspondence 
between points 350 miles apart. It required all the sagacity and 
address of General Scott, as well as of President Van Buren and 
his cabinet to prevent the "Caroline" massacre from severing 
the peaceful relations between the States and Great Britain. 

Alexander McLeod, a British subject, was arrested for 
murder of a man named Amos Durfee, one of the crew of the 
^' Caroline," and his instant release was demanded by the British 
government, which was refused and McLeod was put upon his 
trial for murder in the Circuit Court of the United States, at 
Utica, New York. The jury found him not guilty, that an alibi 
had been proved. This verdict, no doubt, prevented a war 
between England and the United States, the English view being 
that the destruction of the '' Caroline" was a public act, and that 
no one engaged in it could be held individually liable. In 
retaliation for the burning of the " Caroline," the Patriots burned 
the British steamboat, " Sir Robert Peel," while taking in wood 
near Kingston, Canada. 

The Patriot movements were largely confined to the winter 
seasons, which bridging with ice the waters separating the 
Canadas from the States, was more favorable to descents upon that 
country. In watching these movements, assisting General Scott, 
were Generals Wool and Eustis on the northern side of New 
York and Vermont ; General Worth on the Niagara, Lake 
Ontario and St. Lawrence frontier, and General Brady on Lake 
Erie and the Detroit frontier. Governor Marcy and General 
Scott reached Buffalo at midnight, January 11th. 

Following the seizure of Navy Island, Governor Sir Francis 
Bond Head, erected batteries on the Chippewa side and com- 
menced an attack by boats on the Island, but General Van 
Rensselaer with his cannon knocked his batteries to pieces and 
drove back his boats with some loss of lives. On the the 12th 
of January, 1838, Governor Marcy sent a request to General 


Van Rensselaer at Navy Island to meet General Scott and 
himself the next day at Niagara Falls. 

The meeting was held, and after a few hours conference, 
General Van Rensselaer returned to Navy Island and advised its 
immediate abandonment, and within twenty-four hours their 
arms, munitions of war and provisions were in the course of 
transportation to Detroit river, and Navy Island was a 
solitude. On the evening of January 15th, some 350 of the 
patriots from Navy Island passed through Buffalo on their way 
west. Several pieces of cannon, several boxes of small arms and 
a large amount of ammunition preceded the soldiers at 3 o'clock 
the same day, and according to a Buffalo paper of that date 
"the residue of the troops will accompany General Van 
Rensselaer and his officers to-night." 

On the 24th of January, 1838, the steamboat "Robert 
Fulton," arrived at Sandusky with 200 • government troops on 
board, under command of Colonel Worth, (who was made general 
in 1842). The " Fulton " on her way from Buffalo, where she 
had been chartered by General Scott, touched at Dunkirk, from 
whence the troops on board, by a quick march, four miles inland 
to Fredonia, rescued from the 350 men, late of the Navy Island 
forces, all the arms and munitions which they had taken from 
Navy Island. The steamer reached Detroit river on the 26th, 
and remained near its mouth until the 27th. On Sunday, the 
4th of February, 1838, a few men arrived at Sandusky, who had 
belonged to the forces on Navy Island, and these were followed 
by others on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, till the whole 
number amounted to 400 men, and these reported 200 more were 
following. Several officers also arrived, and all these crossed the 
bay on the ice and encamped on the peninsula, some four or 
five miles from Sandusky. They were poorly provided, but 
most enthusiastic in the cause. Two hundred men of the Patriot 
forces, coming from the east, were met by a gentleman of 
Sandusky, as he was returning from Detroit, in the Black Swamp 
road, near Maumee. General Duncan MeLeod arrived at 


Sandusky February 8th, and addressed public meetings that 
week at Huron and Sandusky, on the wrongs of Canada. 

General Scott arrived at Sandusky soon after with a view of 
securing the person of General McLeod, who succeeded General 
Van Rensselaer, as commander-in-chief of the patriot insurgents 
in the United States. That night the Patriot general slept in the 
house of Mr. William Neal, a brick dwelling still standing on 
the northeast corner of Market and Franklin streets in Sandusky. 
My father's residence was immediately across the street, a large 
stone house since taken down, and the ground now occupied by 
a new dwelling in which resides Mr. Henry Dehnei. Major 
Hoadley, afterward killed at the Pelee Island battle, General 
Theller and Captain Anderson were my father's guests. The 
excitement in these two houses was considerable, when the news 
was received that General Scott, accompanied by his staff and 
some soldiers, had arrived in Sandusky. But information was 
soon brought that no attempt to capture the general would be 
' made before morning. Our patriot friends slept soundly, and, 
early the next morning, were safely conducted by a devious 
route to the residence of Mr. James Forsyth, a sympathizing 
friend. and leading farmer in Groton township, about one mile 
south of Bloomingville in Erie county. 

It is a pleasant memory, that on the following morning, at 
Mrs. Grace Neal's request, I went over to her house, and when 
General Scott arrived, with Colonel Robert Anderson as his aide, 
and other officers, the army wagons standing in front of the 
brick dwelling on Market street, I went to the door to admit the 
general in answer to his knock. He asked, "Is Mrs. Neal 
within ? " " Yes, sir," I answered, " will you enter ? " He came 
into the hall, and entering the parlor, I said : "This, General 
Scott, is Mrs. Neal." General Scott then said, "Madam, have 
you General McLeod as a guest ? " " Oh no, General," she 
answered, " I did have, but the bird has flown." 

General Scott then visited my fathers's dwelling, satisfied 
himself by the examination of his officers that General McLeod 


or the others were not secreted in the house, and he soon left. 
General Scott soon after left Sandusky for Detroit. During the 
year 1838 several skirmishes took place between the Patriots and 
the British near the Detroit river, as well as four battles, one 
at Fighting Island, seven miles below Detroit, in which ten men 
were killed and twenty-five wounded; the second and most 
exciting, and jDrobably the severest contested battle of the war, 
was at Point au Pellee Island ; the third one at Prescott in 
Canada, and the fourth and last battle was near Windsor in 
Canada, an account of two of which I will presently give. 

General Scott remained several days at Detroit, and then 
returned to Washington. Soon after General McLeod again 
returned to Sandusky, at the head of about 500 men, who had 
been recruited from those disbanded at Navy Island, and between 
that point and Sandusky. These were divided, part of them 
going to Swan Creek, near the mouth of Detroit river, and some 
800 going upon the ice under the command of Colonel Bradley 
and Major Hoadley, to the Peninsula. On the 24th of February 
the Patriot forces left the Peninsula for Point au Pellee Island, 
ana landed there on Monday, the 26th. At this time the ice was 
eighteen inches in thickness and the weather very cold. This 
island was within the territory of Canada, was almost directly 
northeast of Sandusky, and some twenty miles distant, and was 
about fifteen miles from the Canadian shore. It is the largest 
island in the Put-in-Bay group and contains over 12,000 acres 
of land When the Patriots arrived, they found that the 
McCormics, who owned it, when they saw the Patriots coming, 
had deserted for the Point au Plait, on the mainland of Canada, 
leaving an abundance of food and supplies. The only family 
rempining being that of Captain John Fox, whose two sons, 
Simon and Peter, then boys of fifteen and twelve years of age, I 
have often talked with about the " Pellee Island Battle." 

Several mounted reconnoitering parties of British Cavalry 
and troops examined the approaches to the Island, and on one 
day one officer and five soldiers were captured by the Patriot 


troops. Recruits arrived from Monroe, Detroit and Swan Creek 
on the ice, under command of Col. Seward and Major Wait, 
until on the 3rd day of March, 1838, the day of the battle, the 
Patriots numbered about 10(X) men. The British troops were 
fully armed, under command of Col Maitland, and estimated at 
1200 men, including about 100 cavalry. The Patriot force was 
unarmed, excepting about 250 men. Arms had been promised 
and were expected at the Island upon the arrival of Col. Seward 
with the troops from Swan Creek and Detroit. It was charged 
that Col. Vreeland (Master of ordinance) had played the traitor. 
A counsel of war was called, and Col Seward advised a retreat. 
This was bitterly opposed by Col. Bradley, Majors Hoadley and 
Wait, and all of the Captains, lieutenants and non-commissioned 
officers, who stiid, "we are determined to fight." Col. Seward 
refused to command and yielded to Col. Bradley, who gave the 
order not to fire, until the command was given by him. His 
orders were obeyed, and the execution was terrible, but the 
contest was too unequal. Two hundred and fifty armed men 
could not cope with 800 of the best British regulars, who had 
surrounded the Patriot army, and they retreated toward the 
American Shore. This battle was the most brilliant one of the 
war, and more than 60 British soldiers were killed, and many 
wounded. Authorities differ as to the number, but I well re- 
member at the time, it was conceded that their loss was very large. 
Among the Patriots killed in this battle were CoL Seward, Capt. 
VanRensselaer, Major Hoadley, Captain Craigg, and some 30 
non-commissioned officers and soldiers. My father received a 
letter from Buffalo, dated March 12, 1838, which I have here in 
my hand, in which Mrs. Hoadley writes Col. Sloane, to ask if 
he knows anything of Major Hoad ley's fate. That she had 
heard he was killed at the fight at Pellee, but hearing nothing 
further she hoped the report might be untrue. 

It was claimed after the fight that the Patriot guns had been 
seized at Sandusky by General Brady. 

Col. Seward was from Buffalo. He realized the great 


responsibility upon him in this unequal fight, and it was stated 
that he said: "Boys, I am going to leave. I will not stay and 
see you murdered." And he set out on foot for Sandusky. 
Groing a few hundred yards, however, his pride overcame other- 
conditions, and he walked back saying: "Boys, I am not afraid,, 
but I nate to see you stay here when there is no hope. I will 
take a gun and fight with you." And he did, and was killed in 
this battle. 

Col. Bradley arranged the troops as best he could, and 
when the command to fire was given, 250 armed men, not more,, 
followed by a crowd of about 600 non-combat9.nts, boldly 
advanced on the cream of British Infantry, composed of veterans,, 
some of whom, had seen service under Wellington, at Waterloo. 
Three death dealing volleys were fired by the Patriots and then 
a charge of bayonets was made. The Patriots broke through 
the British line and kept on their way toward the American 
mainland. Their front rank was converted into a rear guard. 
The British cavalary followed them, but several volleys of ball 
kept them at a distance. This battle was a reverse to the Patri- 
ots, but was a most brilliant achievement, and probably, would 
have been successful, had they received the arms; which they 
had expected. A great damage was done to the enemy. • The 
battle resulted fatally to the British Commander, Col. John 
Maitland, who caught a severe cold in the attack, which speed- 
ily cut short his life at London, Canada. 

The retreating army from Pellee Island reached Sandusky 
on Sunday, the 4th of March, 1837. and, on Tuesday, nearly 500 
of them surrendered and were disbanded by General Brady, who 
had arrived at that place, with a body of troops. For some weeks 
remnants of the men remained there, supported by the bounty 
and liospitality of the citizens. No other large force of Patriots 
gathc^red upon the Firelands after that date. The first news 
received in Cleveland, or in the east, of the Pellee battle, was on 
the way bill of a ."tage coach, and was published in the " Herald " 
and "Gazette" of that place in these words : " Important from 


the west. A battle at last." The way bill from the west this 
morning contains the following endorsement, made at Norwalk. 
Mr. Jenney, who vouches for the correctness of Mr Tilden's 
report, is a respectable citizen of that place. " Norwalk, March 
4, 1838. The Patriots were driven from McCormic's Island 
with a loss of forty killed on the part of the Patriots. Rumor 
says one hundred of the royalists were killed in the affair. This 
is, no doubt, very nearly correct. The above statement is made 
loj Mr. B. Tilden, who came from Sandusky this morning. (Way 
bill signed) O. Jenney." Mr. Jenney will be remembered by the 
older citizens of Norwalk, as keeping the Mansion or Stage 
House, then located on the northwest corner, opposite the Court 
House, and where I first met him in 1843 as landlord, when I 
came to attend the Methodist seminary in Norwalk, over which 
the Rev., afterwards Bishop, Edward Thompson, then presided, 

In Michigan, and along the Detroit river in Canada, at 
different points, fighting continued. The steamer "Thames," 
a British vessel, was seized by the Patriots on the evening of 
December 3rd, 1838, at Detroit. Nearly 200 of their men went 
on board and crossed over to a point in Canada near Windsor, 
where the boat was fired and burned. A bloody conflict soon 
after ensued at that place between this command and theB ritish 
troops, in which the latter were victorious. Twenty-one of the 
invaders were killed and four taken prisoners, and these the 
inhuman Colonel Prinae ordered to be immediately shot on the 
spot. For this act Colonel Prince was court marshalled, but was 
acquitted, although very generally censured for his inhuman act. 
The battle of Windsor was the last engagement in the Patriot 
War of 1837-8. Several forays were made in 1839 across the 
border, and about 5,000 British troops continued to be stationed 
along the borders of Canada until as late as 1844. For several 
years the military and political organizations of the Patriots were 
maintained, although open hostilities were not renewed. Though 
unsuccessful in taking the Canadas, and baffled in their high 
hopes as to its future government, yet concessions were secured. 


in causing tlie power of tlie " Family Compact Party " to wane. 

In securing tlie English parliament to investigate the past 
methods pursued, aiid thus breaking the strength of the Canadian 
tyrants in England. 

In securing the removal, in 1838, of the tyrannical Lieuten- 
ant Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head. 

In influencing the appointment, in 1838, of the '' Earl of 
Durham," as governor general of Upper and Lower Canada, whO' 
was invested with powers almost, of a supreme dictator, to 
suspend the constitution of Lower Canada, to put off the meeting 
of parliament, to organize a temporary government of counsellors 
from Upper and Lower Canada, and who was also clothed with 
full power to grant a general amnesty to all insurgents. 

These concessions, made to the Canadian people upon tho 
issues which had largely caused the war^ soon effected the 
extinction of the Patriot cause. 

The Patriot War o£ 1837 and 8 was not fought in vain I 

"For freedom's battle once begun, 
Thouech baffled oft, is always won." 

And this is shown in the present condition of the Canadas,, 
compared with what they were at the time of the rebellion, when 
Lord Durham declared that they were in a condition of '■ Con- 
stituted Anarchy." 

Now, they are a small part, of a united confederation of self 
governing states, including the whole of -British North America^ 
and in extent, nearly equal, to the whole of Europe ; with a 
Central Government, with their own Governor General and 
officials, yet an integral part of the British Empire, and known 
as, "The Dominion of Canada." 

Look at their schools, modeled (with the exception of 
Quebec, where the great mass of the people are Roman Catho- 
lics), after the school system of Massachusetts and New York, 

Look at tlieir magnificent system of internol improvements. 

Their railroads extending from ocean to ocean, all on Cana- 
dian soil. 


Their canals, one connecting Lakes Erie and Ontario, one 
around the Lachine Rapids, one between the Ba}^ of Funday 
and the St. Lawrence, and one between Lakes Superior and 
Huron, at Sault St. Mary's, just completed. 

With great agricultural resources, with Fisheries of incred- 
ible magnitude and value. 

With forests of pine timber that cannot be exhausted in a 
hundred years. 

With a maritime commerce that ranks fifth in importance 
in the world. 

You see innumerable evidences of their prosperity, growth 
and progress on every hand. 

A people homogenous to our's ; they should be under the 
"Aegis" of our Republic, and no brighter gems will adorn the 
diadem of the American Union. 

The anticipations and prophecy of Washington, Adams, 
Franklin and Lincoln as to the Canadas will then be realized, 
and we can say truly with the poet Sewall, 

"No pent up Utica, contracts our powers, 
For the whole unbounded continent is our's." 


NoRWALK, Huron Co., O., July 24, 1895. ^^ 

To C. H. Gallup, G. T. Stewart and F. R. Loomis, Publishing 
Committee of The Fir elands Historical Society. 

NoRWALK, Ohio. 

Gentlemen:— At your request I hereby supply you with 

an original copy made by myself of the Contract of Consolidation 

of •' The Toledo, Norwalk & Cleveland Railroad Company," and 

"The Junction Railroad Company," the same having been 


compared by me with the original contract and found to h& 

These two roads, above mentioned^ now form part of the. 
.present Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad. 
Respectfully yours^ 


This agreement between the Toledo, Norwalk & Cleveland 
Railroad Company, of the first part, and the Junction Railroad 
Company of the second part, WITNESSETH : 

First, — That, on the 1st day of September, 1853,, the parties,, 
each being- lawful corporations of the State of Ohio, shail unite 
and become one consolidated corporation by virtue of thexDowers 
they possess under the laws of said State, especially by the 
statute entitled ^' An Act to Incorporate The Toledo, Norwalk & 
Cleveland Railroad Company," passed March 7th^ 1850, and the 
amendment thereof. 

Second. — Such consolidated corporation shall bear the 
name of "The Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company." 

Third, — For the purpose of equalizing the cost of the two 
railroads, (a difference chiefly arising from the lower cost of iron 
purchased by the second party) said first party may issue and 
distribute to its stockholders an amount of stock "or bonds equal 
to one-half the present amount of its capital stock. 

Fourth. — After such issue the aggregate stock of both 
parties shall become the stock of "The Cleveland & Toledo 
Railroad Company," and the debts, obligations and liabilities 
of each party shall be j)aid by it ; and the said Cleveland & 
Toledo Railroad Company shall thereupon acquire the rights. 
powers and franchises and property of each of said parties, 
together with the privilege of increasing its capital stock, so far 
as either party may jDossess, or the laws of the State of Ohio may 
confer. The second party shall suppress its issue of first mort- 
gage convertible bonds which it hath issued in the second 


(division of its road, or shall take measures to annul the right of 
the holder to convert the same into stock. And no other con- 
vertible bond, and no other stock, save what is above named or 
what may be necessary to fulfill existing engagements shall be 
issued by either party. 

Fepth. — The first party is at liberty to distribute to the 
stockholders all the residue of the earnings of its road, made 
before the said first day of September, after deducting its 
Tunning expenses. ■ And the interest •account upon the stock 
payments of the Junction railroad shall be made up and closed 
on said first day of September and the amount paid to the stock- 
holders. These payments to the stockholders of the two parties 
are to be made by the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company in 
its own income coupon seven per cent, bonds, having not less 
than ten years to run, fractions payable in cash. 

Sixth. — The Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company shall 
occux3y and construct a line of railroad extending from Sandusky 
Bay by Port Clinton, Perrysburg and Maumee City, to or near 
Swanton, assuming the railroad of the Port Clinton Railroad 
Company and connecting with the railroad of the Northern 
Indiana Railroad Company at some convenient point near 
Swanton. It shall open and maintain a railroad connection 
between Sandusky and Toledo upon the same gauge with the 
road between Sandusky and Cleveland, to be finished simultan- 
eously with the opening of the road to Perrysburg. 

Seventh.— The parties contemplate an extension from 
Fremont to towards Fort Wayne and St. Louis by such route as 
the Directors of the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company 
may select, and the said Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company 
shall construct said railroad either to connect with Fort Wayne, 
or upon such route as will best accommodate the business, with 
the west and southwest, unless such line should be previously 
occupied by some other railroad company ; the work is to be 
entered upon immediately and advanced as rapidly as may be 
consistent with good economy. The railroad now undertaken 


from Fremont to Lima shall not supersede the obligation created 
by the present provision. 

Eighth. — The parties unite with the Mad River and Lake 
Erie Railroad Companies in establishing and maintaining rail- 
road communication between Sandusky and Fremont by Clyde. 

Ninth. — The Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company will 

establish and maintain workshops, both at Norwalk and at 

Sandusky, sufficient for the ordinary repairs of machinery on 

'it * 
the respective lines. 

Tenth. — The first election of Directors of The Cleveland & 
Toledo Railroad Company shall he held at Norwalk on the 
Second day of September, 1853. 

Eleventh. — The Executive Committee for the provisional 
management of the affairs of the Cleveland & Toledo railroad 
shall be Elisha B. Litchfield, Charles L. Boalt and E. Lane. 

Twelfth. — It is understood that the first party retain the 
right to guarantee the interest of bonds in the Cleveland, 
Medina & Coshocton Railroad, pursuant to the resolution of its 
directors to the amount of One Hundred Thousand Dollars. 

In Witness Wheeeof, the said corporations, by their 
respective agents for that purpose appointed, do set their re- 
spective names on this 15th day of July, 1853. 

■; The Junction Railroad Company, by E, Lane, President. 

Toledo, Norwalk & Clevelana Railroad Company, by C. L. 
Boalt, President. 



The Firelands have produced a number of artists who have 
become eminent in their profession, and of whom we wish to 
publish sketches in the Pioneer. 

Of these is Frank H. Tompkins, who was born and began 
his artistic career in the village of North Fairfield, Huron Co. 

The Cleveland Leader of February 10, 1895, published 
portraits and biographic sketches of seven artists who had 
become famous in that city, giving the center place to Tomp- 
kins. Of him it said: 

'■ For several years he lived and conducted a studio in this 
city. He left Cleveland to study abroad, but on his return took 
up his residence in Boston by a singular accident. Mr. Tomp- 
kins was a country boy, and was from North Fairfield, in Huron 
county.* In his youth he was ready with a pencil and exhibited 
more than ordinary skill. After filling the walls of the neigh- 
boring barns with specimens of his skill, he was obliged to seek 
new fields for the exercise of this pastime, and this led to his 
art training. He absorbed all the knowledge of the art in the 
locality and sought for more. His ability was recognized and 
he was aided to go to New York to study. 

Later he went to Europe for a short time, and in 1878 he 
came to Cleveland and opened an art studio in the City Hall 


building. While here he was made an instructor in the Cleve- 
land Art Club, then the only art organization in the city. 
While in Cleveland Mr. Tompkins painted many pictures, 
which, however, for the most part, advanced his own studio. 
He was not successful at this time and was not recognized by 
art connoisseurs. 

While conducting his studio in the city, he was again seized 
with a desire to go abroad for further study. It was then that 
he sold more of his paintings than had ever before been dis- 
posed of. They went under the hammer and at almost any 
price, but such a stock did he have on hand that he realized 
quite a sum of money and made a s*6cond trip abroad. 

Before leaving, however, he placed several unsold pictures 
on sale at Ryder's art gallery, one of which was placed in the 
large show window, which the artist would have sold at $75 and 
$100. There happened in the store one day a stranger, who 
asked the price of the picture. With an air of bluff the clerk 
told him $cOO. 

" I'll take it," responded the stranger, and he laid down the 
cash for it The gentleman was from Boston and a member of 
the Boston Art Club, to which organization the picture was 
presented. This painting was entitled " Mother and Child," 
and in an instant it made its creator famous and in the lead 
with American artists. Mr. Tompkins was in Europe at the 
time" and was at once communicated with by officers of the 
Boston Art Club. He was importuned to go to the Hub and 
accei3t the position of principal of the art club there, the fore- 
most art institution of the New England States. 

He accepted the offer and has since been a resident of 
Boston, and has achieved phenomenal success. His first and 
only auction was held in this city, and the patrons of that sale 
now count their purchases among their art treasures. Mr. 
Tompkins is about forty-five years old and paints largely com- 
positions and portraits. 

We add the following notice of him by the distinguished 


art critic, Hartman, who said in a late learned criticism on 
German painting: 

"A knowledge of all these details is essential in forming a 
just estimate of F. H, Tompkins' paintings, belonging as they 
do to the best work the Loefftz school has hitherto produced. 

The majority of the Loefftz pupils adhere to the master's 
idea They avoid all themes which would exercise the inven- 
tive and imaginative powers; their pictures lack all elaborate 
composition, their figures neither pose nor show emotion and 
excitement, their faces are void of any dramatic expression; 
they merely paint nature as they find them. 

Tompkins' differs from these in some respects. Though 
his technique betrays their leading characteristics; correct 
judgment, simplicity of composition, sureness of lines, forcible 
modeling, firm unobtrusive brushwork natural though rather 
sombre and at times muddy coloring and a clever handling of 
conflicting lights — his principal endeavor is after all to express 
some feeling, a vibration of the soul, individual to himself. 

His first important picture " The Worshippers," showed 
this tendency. It represented a German girl in plain black, 
standing tall and erect in a {^erious and devout attitude in a 
church pew, beside an old woman in a veil and checkered shawl. 

Loefftz who is rather chary of praise remarked about this 
picture " Gabriel Max could not paint such a hand but he could 
paint a better picture." 

In a number of pictures expressing vague sentiments, as 
indicated by the titles " Eevery " "Memory" "Souvenir," etc., 
representing young girls (painted after lady models) he is not 
seen to best advantage. He is not psychologist enough to 
render these delicate, poetical moods of a woman's character 
sufficiently interesting. The material element predominates in 
these pictures, (he is by far more successful in depicting the 
prosaic phases of a woman's life) which again is not immediate 
and independent enough to attract like a study of Lieberman's 
©f whom Tompkins now and then reminds us. 


One of these pictures portrays a young girl seated at a 
table, looking over some keepsakes. The painter has under- 
stood how to impart almost a soul to the inanimate objects, such 
as an envelope, some faded flowers, a piece of lace, strewn on 
the table. With a remarkable bit of fine taste and intuition, he 
placed a vase of roses, the flower of love, wrapt in a dim, misty 
atmosphere in the background. 

In his portraits he is very unequal. Sometimes they are 
good and occasionally bad. There is often a lack of taste in the 
arrangement and the sketches are generally more effective than 
the finished pictures. Tompkins' idea of portrait painting — to 
make an exact copy of the sitter — is not infallible as his own 
experience shows. He only succeeds in making a portrait 
interesting when he is interested in the sitter. 

By far more powerful he appears in expressing the senti- 
ment of motherly love. There are more than half a dozen can- 
vasses treating this subject, two of which are particularly 
characteristic. The first depicts a rustic mother betraying in 
her whole figure and the joyful expression of her face that all 
her thoughts are with her child. The second type of mother- 
hood is represented by a delicate and refined looking lady, with 
New England reminiscences in her dress, sitting listlessly at the 
cradle from which her thoughts have wandered far away. In 
the conception of these figures Tompkins is guided not so much 
by observation and poetic thought as by a refined instinct, 
which is also one of the interesting features of the artist him- 
self. Tompkins is not versatile. His creativeness is based on 
three or four deep fundamental lines of his character. All 
monotony, however, to which this simplicity, one is almost 
inclined to call it heaviness at times, would necessarily expose 
him, is avoided by his subjectivity, which is rich and deep 
enough to render every new picture bearing on the subject an 
interesting addition to the psychology of maternal feeling. 

These pictures serve as a link between his young girls in 
their waking dreams and his unfinished Hester Prynne, in work 


at pre33nt. As Tompkins is a very conscientious worker, con- 
tinually altering while painting, one cannot pronounce a final 
Yerdict on this picture, which is undoubtedly destined to become 
one of his masterpieces. (For my part I am especially inter- 
ested to know whether he will succeed in his struggles to give 
to Hester Prynne's face, what one might term, a typical 
expression of suffering womanhood. Something like the faces 
of Bastien Lepage's " Jean d'Arc " and the peasant woman in 
^' Les Foins, " With this picture there is a chance for him to 
become a great artist, enjoying an art historical significance.) 

" Good Friday " was another step in Tomipkin's artistic de- 
velopment. Again the subject is a young, plainly dressed girl 
of the middle classes, who kneels over a crucifix, laid on black 
cloth against the foot of an altar, in the act of kissing the feet 
of the Savior, Through the simple background of columns one 
catches a glimpse of a shining altar and a praying multitude. 
The fascination of this picture lies in a deeply rooted (one 
could hardly call it religious) sentiment which speaks from every 
part, the background as well as the figure, and reminds one of 
Isrctxl's gift of imbuing the most commonplace objects with 
poetic sentiment. 

We now approach his last work which still stands on the 
easel. It bears the title " After the glow. " 

It is a twilight scene. A road, lined on the right with cot- 
tages, bearing a strong resemblance to High street, Brooklyn, 
loses itself in slight undulations in the distance, where a mass of 
houses, with numerous lights suggests the never ceasing 
tumult of city life. The sun has set in vehement red and orange 
colors under a green ky with dark bluish gray clouds. In 

the foreground, a priest with choir boys, carrying lighted 
lanterns and crucifix (only half the figure of the priest is visible) 
return from the funeral of some poor soul wrapt like the day in 
silent darkness. The patch of scanty vegetables with a pool of 
water to the left, the barren road, the dark cottages looking like 
the abodes of peasants, with an occasional flickering light in the 


dim windows or streaming through a half-opened door, appear 
like the vague desire of sad, struggling humanity for something 
brighter beyond the grave. And the same feeling is unconsciously 
worked out in the coloring, the bluish gray tone of the picture 
longs, so to say, to be relieved by the jB.erce colors of the sunset. 
It is a picture of endless suggestions that appeals to the poetic 
mind, before which we can dream and experience a desire to 
fold our hands, however unbelieving we may be. Like "The 
Worshippers " and " Good Friday " it is an utterance of the 
i leal religious feeling of our age, a reverence for everything that 
miy be sacred to one or the other human being; and this same 
r3verence, which is the quintessence of Tompkin's artistic 
ciaracter, has, in connection with his technique, invested him 
with the power to assist the Loefftz school to overcome and 
idealize naturalism, and to give to America the benefit of mature 
works of art, which have taken Germany almost a century to 


Among the many attractions of Madison are the collections of the 
State Historical Society, located in the south wing of the state capitol. 
The library is one of the largest and most valuable of its character in the 
United States, numbering over 110, UOO volumes of books and pamphlets, 
many of its volumes being exceedingly rare and of great value. The art 
gallery has a large collection of portraits of pioneers of the state and other 
distinguished men, and the cabinet is full of interesting curiosities. The 
latter contains the largest collection in the world of stone and copper im- 
plements of the pre-historic age, there being about 9,000 specimens of the 
stone age, and over 150 pre historic coppers. 



By I. M. Gillett, read at the annual meeting of the Firelands Historical 
Society, June 13th, 1894. 

On a fine morning in June, 1816, one of those sailing ves- 
sels, of that description in which families emigrating to the 
west sometimes took passage before the introduction of steam- 
boats into general use upon Lake Erie, was seen floating silently 
on the wave that bore it gently towards its destination. 

At a small village by the mouth of the Huron river, or 
rather at a spot intended to be occupied as such, the vessel was 
brought to the shore and moored, and the passengers began to 
mingle with the people whom business or curiosity had drawn 
to the landing place. Among the passengers was a band of 
missionary families, who were proceeding to their station among 
the Pottawattomie Indians in the Michigan Territory. 

The place at which they landed was a level plain from which 
the timber had been cleared for the space of a mile along the 
river, and nearly that depth into the forest. 

A cluster of cabins, recently buiy of logs to which the 
bark still adhered, presented to the eyes of our travellers a speci- 
men of human existence more nearly approaching the rudeness 
of savage life than anything they had yet seen. 


There was nothing here to*recall to memory their own lovely 
homes, the villages of New England, 

There was no green spot shaded with venerable trees, hal- 
lowed by the repose of the dead; no church with its spire point- 
ing to heaven, offering a holy refuge to the living. 

There were no rural embellishments indicating taste, neat- 
ness and enjoyment; no domestic trees or honeysuckle bowers; 
nor any of thos3 ornaments which beautified their native vil- 
lages and gave to the humblest cot an air of elegance. Gardens, 
or orchards, there were none ; nor was there any dwelling that 
seemed to have been endeared to a human being by the name of 
home. The ground, newly cleared, v/as thickly set with stumps. 
The frail and unsightly cabins, standing apart from each other^ 
and destitute of enclosures, seemed to be the temporary resi- 
dence of an unsettled people. 

But cheerless as this spot appeared to those who had been 
accustomed to all the comforts and many of the luxuries of life, 
it was such as all the towns in the West once had been; such, 
perhaps, as the hamlets were on the shores of the Atlantic where 
the voices of the Pilgrims first ascended in prayer to Him who 
had brought them in safety out of the land of persecution. And 
yet this place was not destitute of attractions. Art had done 
but little to spoil and nothing to embellish it. As the travellers 
stood on the shore they beheld the beautiful river for miles 
above them, moving gently along with a surface as smooth as 
polished crystal. 

The shores were slightly . curved, swelling out on the one 
side and receding on the other, so as to exhibit a series of long 
and graceful bends. 

The luxuriant soil, while it loaded itself with vegetation, 
gave a depth and vividness to the coloring of the landscape, 
which imx)arted a peculiar strength and character to the scene. 
And if the eye was charmed, there was a loveliness, a stillness and 
a silence reigning througho at this region that touched the heart. 

The very beauties that delighted and the quietness that 
soothed, testified that man was a stranger here, and told the 


traveller that he was alone with his God. Such were the feel- 
ings of these missionaries as they gazed on this gentle stream 
and its wild shores. They had left their homes and their friends, 
their pious companions, their cherished relations and the scenes 
of their childhood, and were going beyond the confines of 
civil society, to dwell with the savage in his own wild wood. 

As they travelled to the west, they saw the traces of civi- 
lization become every day more faint, every day they found the 
villages ruder and more distant from each other, until at last 
they had reached the abode of the Pioneer, where the rifle and 
axe furnished the means of subsistence and defence. 

An immense tract of wilderness was yet to be traversed 
before they could reach the scene of their future labors, and 
they felt sad to think how seldom the smile of a countryman or 
the voice of a Christian brother would cheer them on their 
way. Their spirits sank as they looked at the boundless extent 
of forest. Gorgeous as it was to the eye, it was still as a bloom- 
ing desert, containing nothing to warm the heart or cherish the 

Every object around them was strange, and they felt like 
exiles wandering far from the land of their birth. 

Thes3 were trials, however, that had been anticipated; and 
it was easy to see, in the mournful countenances of these humble 
Christians, as they wandered along the shore, that a heavier 
visitation was pending over them than those which were neces- 
sarily incident to their situation. One of their companions, a 
beloved sister, was about to breathe her last life-sigh. The 
messenger of death had arrested her on the way ; giving a 
solemn warning to those who journeyed with her, that although 
they had forsaken the haunts of man, they had not escaped the 
casualties of human existence. Even here, where nature's 
bloom was so fresh, where every surrounding object teemed 
with youth, vigor and fragrance, the messenger of fate would 
reach its victim. 


Bound on a mission of love, and bearing the tidings of life 
to thousands, they also bore with them the evidence of their 
own mortality. 

Death was silently pursuing their footsteps, watching his 
own appointed time to claim the tribute which all mast pay to 
the insatiate king of terrors. The situation of the dying mis- 
sionary was soon known to the villagers, and a few of them 
went to offer in their humble way the offices of hospitality; but 
they came too late. 

The sufferer was too feeble to be removed, and the mourn- 
ing strangers said they needed nothing from human kindness 
but a grave for their companion. The visitors were affected. 
The deathbed exhibits at all times a solemn and touching scene, 
and though of daily occurrence its frequency does not destroy 
its fearful interest. 

There are few who reason coldly irw the chamber of disso- 
lution and the imagination is easily excited by an incidental 
circumstance which brings an additional pang to the parting of 
the living and the dying. 

The present scene was one of no ordinary interest. The 
sufferer was a young and delicate female. A husband watched 
over her pallet and two lovely children, unconscious of the loss 
they were about to sustain, were with difficulty withheld from 
her embrace. The severing of hearts wedded in love, the 
parting of a mother from her infant children, are events which 
the m6st callous cannot view without emotion; but on ordinary 
occasions there is a melancholy pleasure in the reflection that 
the survivors will often visit the grave of the deceased to drop 
the unseen tears of affection. 

Even this mournful consolation was now wanting, and those 
who sorrowed felt that when the soul of their friend should 
have departed, they must abandon her earthly remains, retaining 
no relic of her whom they had dearly loved. 

Her tomb would be on the wild shore where no kindred 
ashes slept, and where they who dwelt near the spot could only 


point it out as a stranger's grave. The solemn moment had 
arrived when none affected to doubt the truth, which was too 
evident, or sought to detain the spirit in its earthly abode. An 
angel seemed to be lingering there, as if unwilling to sever too 
rudely the cords of affection by which she had been so closely 
united to human hearts. The bosom of the saint swelled with 
holy joy, but the heart of the wife and mother clung to the 
dearly cherished objects of its purest and strongest earthly 
passion. It was gratifying to see by the deportment of those 
missionary families, how efficient a support is religion in the 
hour of sorrow. Though deeply afflicted, there was a decent 
composure, a quiet humility, and an entire resignation in all 
their words and actions. They sorrowed not for her who was 
going to a better world, but for those who remained. 

Such was the day. Evening came and the sufferer still 
lived. Prayers and hymns were heard throughout the night 
but all else was silent ; and at a late hour, those who cast a 
look at the shore beheld a dim light still emanating from the 
chamber of death, and appearing as a bright speck in the 
surrounding gloom, like the lingering soul, whose feeble radiance 
yet gleamed in the dark " valley of the shadow of death." 

The following day was the Sabbath. At dawn the villagers 
hastened to the boat. The missionaries were already engaged 
at their morning devotions. The voice of prayer was heard 
ascending through the stillness of that quiet hour. The accents 
were low and trembling but distinctly audible. The speaker 
alluded to her, whose spirit had gone to the mansions of the 
blessed, and prayed for the bereaved husband and orphan 
children ; the villagers then knew that she in whose fate they 
were so deeply interested suffered no longer. After a moment's 
pause, the notes of sacred music were heard floating over the 
wave, so sweet, so mournful, that every heart was touched and 
every eye was moistened. 

At sunset, the same day, the remains of the stranger were 
borne to the place of burial by her late companions, followed by 


the inhabitants of the village. The spot selected was a large 
Indian mound in the rear of the town, on the east side of the 
river. The grave was opened at the summit, and here was the 
body of a Christian mother deposited near the remains of heathen 

The inhabitants and the mxission families stood around with 
their heads reverently uncovered, while one of the missionaries 
addressed them ; then another raised a hymn, and the whole 
company joined, chanting with solemn fervor. A flood of 
devotional feeling burst forth in melody, and when the mourners 
knelt upon the mound, it was not from any signal or invitation 
given by man, but Grod touched every heart and as the song of 
praise ceased, all involuntarily prostrated themselves before His 

When the people arose and the ofhciating minister had dis- 
missed them with the usual benediction, the bereaved husband 
stepped forward, leading one of his children with each hand . 
For a moment he stood by the new filled grave, gazing on it 
with agony which he strove to subdue. In a ]:)roken voice he 
thanked the jjeople of the village for their kindness and 
committed the remains of his late wife to their protection. He 
begged them to mark the place of interment, and in order that 
thereafter, if a stranger in passing through their village should 
ask to see the grave of the missionary's wife, they could lead 
him to the spot. 

The following morning the missionaries proceeded on the 
lake toward the place of their destination. 


P. Lorotz tore down the old Webb barn this week. The old barn had 
gone to decay and was only a harbor for tramps. It was one of the first 
buildings erected in Wakeman, and it is said that the first public Metho- 
dist meeting was held in it. There had been a few meetings aroucd at 
private houses before. Thus disappears the last of the old buildings on 
the Webb farm. — Wakeman Press, April^ 1895. 



The lot on the corner of Benedict Avenue and West Main 
Street, now occupied by the Grlass Block, was for many years the 
site of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Norwalk. The society 
is now building an elegant church edifice on the west corner of 
State Street and West Main Street, and in the meantime 
occupying Whittlesey Hall for its church purposes. At the 
farewell services, of the congregation, on the old ground before 
vacating it, their very excellent pdstor. Rev. C. Grallimore, gave 
the following interesting facts in the .history of the church 
which are well worthy of preservation in the Pioneek. He said: 

"A historical sketch of the Methodist church in any place, 
as a rule, includes the period of heroism, toil and self-sacrifice 
which pertains to pioneer life. The Methodist preacher pressed 
hard on the vanguard of civilization, and not infrequently was a 
constituent part of it. So it is not surprising to find that while 
civilization in this region was in its enlbryonic state ; when, to 
quote from the memoir of Rev. Theo. Gurley, 'The men were 
dressed in tow shirts, linsey hunting shirts, buckskin pantaloons 
isind moccasins, caps of the skin of the raccoon or muskrat ; and 
the ^omen' in dresses of rude home manufacture,' that the 
Methodist itinerant should be there to preach the everlasting 
gospel in the clearing or the log school house, while the " Indians 
sat near, dressed in their peculiar costumes and armed with 


rifle, tomahawk and knife." Such were the conditions under 
which the first sermon ever preached in this vicinity was 
delivered. The time, 1811, the place, Bloomingville, seven miles 
south of Sandusky city, the preacher. Rev. Wm. Gurley. A 
class of fifteen or twenty was organized shortly after this, being 
"the first religious association of any kind organized in the 
county on the Western Reserve west of Cleveland." 

That the time of the organization of the Methodist church 
in Nor walk was a day of small things if evidenced from a glance 
at the record of its contributions for the support of the ministry » 

First quarter. . $ 50 

Second quarter 2 12J 

Third quarter 4 55^ 

Fourth quarter 2 87J 

Total $10 05J 

The contributions for the whole circuit for that year (about 
1824) was but $46.37, which furnished the support for two 
preachers and the presiding elder's claim. But, lest we judge 
harshly, let us remember, that at this time the Methodist church 
in Norwalk was represented by but two families numbering in all 
but seven souls, viz : Joseph Wilson, his wife Catherine, his 
sons Isaac, Joseph H. and Levi ; and Perry Beckwith and his 
wife Delilah. The names of the pastors were True Patter and 
James Mclntire, with Wm. Swayne as presiding elder. 

Among the more prominent names of this early period we 
find the following : Benajah Boardman, Samuel Pennewell, 
Charles Laylin, B. F. Roberts, Levi Wilson, Nathan Wooster, 
David Rogers, Asahel North, Martin C. Morey, Wm. Stockton, 
Hiram Gray, Milton Laylin, P. B. Mead, A. A. Jackson, W. O. Par- 
ker, E. Ivory, John Beebe, Wm . Brewster, John Laylin, Raymond 
Perrin, Eri Mesnard, Chas. E. Pennewell, I Peters, and C. B. 
Beard. Behind this galaxy is the cloud of unmentioned woman- 
hood, who have a place in the highest and best of the records of 
heaven. One of these is yet with us. Miss Esther Ann Gibbs, 


now Mrs. Rev. J. H. Pitezel, whose connection with this church 
dates back to February 24, 1834. 

In 1829, the lot on Seminary street now occupied by the 
Advents, was purchased and shortly after a frame structure was 
built on it. Its erection was not secured without effort ; one of 
the preachers, H. O. Sheldon being compelled to act as financial 
agent, and for a long time slabs furnished the pews and a rough 
board structure formed the pulpit. In 1845 the whole property 
was sold for debt but was redeemed by the heroic membership 
during the following year. 

Under the pastorate of John A. Wiedge in 1835 it was 
determined to build a new church, and the present site set 
ajpart for church purpose by E. Whittlesey esq., was taken 
possession of. The church, a very fine one for those days, was 
dedicated by Dr. Edward Thomson, October 26, 1856. In 1863 
$500 was raised to complete the tower and in 1866 the bell was 
furnished. In 1867, Rev. A. R. Palmer being pastor, the church 
was extensively improved at a cost of over $4,000 and reopened 
by Bishop Kingsley. 

The following were among the members'who immigrated from 
the old Seminary street church and aided in the erection of the 
present structure, the membership at that time (1856) being 
about 200 : 

Nathan Wooster and wife, John V. Sharp, Samuel Penne- 
well, Raymond Perrin, Eri Mesnard, Israel Peters and wife, 
James McGorgan, Daniel Richardson and wife, Charles E. 

Pennewell, Brewster, Mrs. D. Morehouse, Jane Delamater, 

Eliza Adams, Mary Wood, Ellen Mead, John Richardson, M. C. 
Morey, Harriet Bishop, Jane Beard, Mary E. Wyckoff and others. 

From a small beginning our society has grown until its roll 
contains a list of 553 names of persons actively identified with the 
church at this time ; and a consecrated devotion to God's cause 
which enables it to contribute an average amount annually, for the 
various needs of His Kingdom, which closely approximates $4,000. 

The scroll of our past is rolled together. A marked provi- 
dence has attended its checkered history. An assurance has 


been given that the promise will be fulfilled to us that, "A little 
one shall become a thousand." 

With hearts grateful for the past we turn to a future bright 
with promise, and as the old structure falls, the eye of' faith and 
earnest purpose sees the coming of a more stately and enduring 
temple. Farewell the old, welcome the new : and in it may even 
more loyal devotion be given, until' we shall all be called to a 
place in the temple not made with hands, but which is eternal 
in Heaven. , 

Hon. Charles E. Pennewell, formerly judge of the court of 
common pleas, at Norwalk, and since judge of the court in 
Cleveland, where he now resides, in a spicy letter^ written by 
him for the occasion, said, : . , 

^' My father and mother became members of the " Methodist 
Class," as it was then called, when they -moved to Norwalk, 
sometime in the thirties They brought lette:fs with them from 
the Methodist class in Portland,\from which place they removed 
to Norwalk. The class ,then here was small, had no church 
building of its own, but held its preaching services in the old 
frame court house, which then stood on what now constitutes the 
yard of the present court house, and held its social meetings, its 
prayer meetings and class meetings at private houses. 

Norwalk was then, a preaching place ; on a circuit of very 
large dimensions, supplied by a "circuit rider," as he was 
popularly called, who could get around but, once each month, so 
as to , hold two services, on . Sunday, one in the morning about 
10:30, and jthe other commencing literally at early candle lighting 
in the evening. At that early day '' candle lighting " meant that 
steady, brilliant and ]:)eautiful light given off by "' candle dips.' 
That was the best then to be had, and answered the purpose 
very well, if there were enough candles burning, and they were 
kept well "snuffed." I remember well that it was the duty of 
the person acting as "sexton," at intervals of about fifteen 
minutes, to go to every candle in the room and snuff it, including 
those which served the preacher. Occasionally, the sexton 
would fall asleep, neglect his duty, and the preacher, having no 


snuffers, would dextrously snip off, thp long black, consumed 
wick with his fingers, and thus "getting more light," would 
proceed with his discourse. 

The preaching services came at long intervals, but whei^i 
they did come, they were generally very long drawn out. , They 
consisted in singing a hymn, usually six verses, then a very long 
prayer, then singing a long hymn, both being " lined " by the 
minister, which made them twice as long as they otherwise would 
have been. This was followed by the. sermon, often two hours 
long and generally delivered with great "power" of lung, and 
often with genuine eloquence and telling effect. 

lam not able to state the year your society first occupied 
the old frame church on Seminary street. This was the first 
church structure, and though modest and unpretentious, it 
served as the rallying place for the Methodists for many years, 
and until you moved into the building which you are now 
occupying for the last time. 

Your society, while it occupied that old frame church, was 
served by many devoted, earnest, gifted and remarkable ministers^ 
most, if not all of .them, having faithfully land usefully served 
their, generation, have gone to their rewards on high. I recall 
many of them — Leonard, Sheldon,, Edward ThoEpipson, Powers, 
Yocum, Poe, Gurley, McMahqn, Thomas Thompson, McClure, 
Gray, Dunn, Barkdull, Disbro, Grumley, Bradley, Durbin, 
Mudge. These jnen, stirred by an all-consuming desire to preac];i 
the gospel and save their fellow men, carried out their purpose^ 
amid great discouragements and difficulties, giving their entire 
time and their very best energies, , to the church and public 
almost without , money ai^d without price. Their salaries pr 
"allowances" as they were called, varied from, $200 to $500 or 
$600 a. year. , Out of these: paltry sums, they supported their 
fami|Ues and , educated their , children by practicing the j^iost 
rigid economy and often severe self denial. They were noble 
men, good and true, and we revere their memories." 



On the 20th day of next January, 1896, St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church, of Norwalk, will attain its seventy-fifth anniversary. 

The following extract from the minutes of the meeting at 
which the church was organized January 20, 1821, will be read 
with interest now. We are glad to present to our readers the 
very able address delivered by the pastor of this highly pros- 
perous church, Rev. Charles S. Aves, before the meeting of the 
Pioneers at Huron ; and we congratulate him and his church on 
the merited success of his ministerial labors through ten years 
at Norwalk, Milan, Monroeville and other parts of the Firelands : 

"At a meeting of a number of persons residing in this 
vicinity, Piatt Benedict, Esquire, was called to the chair, and 
William Gardiner was elected clerk of the meeting and the fol- 
lowing: gentlemen enrolled themselves as members or friends of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of 
America : 

Piatt Benedict. 

John Keeler. 

Luke Keeler. 

John Boalt. 

Amos Woodward. 

Samuel Sparrow. 

Wm. Gardiner. 

Asa Sanborn 

Ami Keeler. 

Henry Hurlbert. 

Wm. Gallup. 

Ezra Sprague. 

D. Gibbs. 

Enos Gilbert. 

Moses Somers." 

Every one of the fifteen original founders of the church 
has passed away. 

At this meeting Amos Woodward and Luke Keeler were 
elected wardens. 

On the following day, Sunday, January 21, 1821, services 
were held by Rev. Roger Seale, a missionary who came to the 
State in 1817, and to whom the organization of the new church 


was mainly due, and Louisa and Theodore Williams were bap- 
tized. The latter is now one of the vestrymen of the church. 

The first public religious services in the small village of 
Norwalk were held as early as 1818 in Piatt Benedict's log house. 
After the new church organization was founded the services 
were held most of the time in the old court house. It was not 
until 1834 that a church edifice was erected on the site occupied 
by the present St. Paul's Episcopal church. 


From an Address delivered before the Huron County S. S. Association, by 

Henry C. Barnard. 

Lyme township was originally joined to the township of 
Groton, Erie county, and called Wheatsborough, from a Mr. 
Wheat, who owned a large tract of land in the township. 

In 1818 the township of Lyme was organized. Besides its 
present extent it included the south half of Groton township 
until 1840, when Erie county was formed, leaving Lyme town- 
ship as at present, five miles square. 

Some years ago, when Mr. Hart was our pastor, he, with a 
great deal of care and study, prepared a history of the township 
and of this neighborhood. 

Mr. Hart's account differs somewhat from accounts pub- 
lished by the Firelands Historical Society. I shall assume that 
Mr. Hart is correct and shall quote freely from his history. 

The first family which settled in Lyme township was that 
of Conrad Hawkes, in 1808, on the farm afterwards owned by 
Deacon Adams, now by John Barnes, one mile west of North 

The next families were those of Michael Widner and John 
Stull in 1809. Mr. Widner built a log hut by the brook near 


where Joseph Sweet now lives, and John Stull settled on the 
farm where John Megginson liow lives.' • ' 

In 1811 Major Joseph Strong came from New York to look 
at the country and, after a careful exploration, retlirned home . 

In the spring of 1812 he, with his two sons, Nathan and 
Lestei*, came to this place with horses, wagons and farming 
tools. He bought the cabin of Michael Widnel*, "and a small 
piece of corn he had fenced. With the help of his sons Major 
Strong broke up twelve acres of prairie and planted corn. 

After the surrender of the northwestern post by Hull, they 
with others fled south to Mt. Vernon on account of the Indians. 
They remained there until General Harrison took command of 
this region aiid made it safe for them to return. The ybung 
inen came hkck, harvested their corn and spent the winter. 
Major Strong returned to New York and in the spring of 1813 
brought his family with him. That was the first permanent set- 
tlement on the' Ridge. 

This r6ad has always been known as "Strong's Ridge." 
This same spring, 1813, Geo Ferguson and family settled on the 
farm now owned by Luther Avery. Their families, with some 
young men who had cotne into the place, united in building a 
block house for protection against the Indians. Diiritig the 
summer they were attacked by about forty Indians, but with 
the hel^ of dogs they succeeded in keeping them off. ' 

During the year Major Strong Went to Connecticut and 
purchased for himself and others Over' 3,000 acres of land. 

In 1814, Captain Zadoc Strong came' from New York and 
settled where three or four years ago, the old house of Rufus 
RussfeU was bui-ned, hearly opposite the chutch. With Captain 
Strong's family came Stephen Russell, Mrs. Strong's son by a 
former husband. 

' In 181^, Francis Strong, known as Squire Strong, with his 
brother- iti-law,Jbhn Baker, came from Homer, New York, with 
their families. ' Squire Strong settled oli the farm now owlied 
by G. A. Wright, and Mr. Baker on the farm where Alfred 


Nims now lives. Jacob Goodrich, who came in 1815, settled 
where Ed. Wines now lives. Asa Sylva occupied a log hut near 
our present parsonage site, that same year. Charles Rash came, 
making his home first with Major Strong, afterward with John 

In 1810 Abner Strong settled where Edwin Dole now lives. 
These families constituted the settlement on Strong's Ridge up 
to the organization of this church. Other settlements had been 
formed in the region, with which this was sometimes united for 
mutual helpfulness. 

It was the safety and glory of the Fathers of our Republic 
that they brought with them to this land the church, and that 
their first business was to set up the institutions of our holy 
religion, and it was no less the safety and glory of the pioneers 
of this region that they so soon united themselves together for 
the worship of God. 

Scarcely had men like Squire Strong and John Baker 
become settled in their homes than they began to think and talk 
about a place for public worship. Sometime in the year 1815 a 
log school house was built on an acre of ground given for that 
purpose and also for, a burying ground by Captain Strong. 

As early as the spring of 1816 the people who were here 
began to assemble regularly on the Sabbath to unite in a service 
conducted alternately by Squire Strong and John Baker. A 
sermon was read by one of these men or by Capt. Hopkins, who 
lived where Bellevue now stands, and who was a good reader, 
though not a professing Christian. 

The first minister who visited thie place was Rev. Simon 
Woodruff, who preached on the Ridge on a Monday evening in 
April, 1815, at the home of either Captain or Major Strong. 

During the year 1816 and the first half of 1817 a sermon 
was preached occasionally, probably in the school house by the 
cemetery, by Rev. Alvin Coe, a missionary to the Indians. His 
home was in Greenfield, this county. 

Probably through him word came to the Connecticut Mis- 
sionary Society that there were those here who desired to be 


organized into a church and to have regular preaching, if pos- 

Under the plan of union, as agreed upon by the Presby- 
terian Assembly and Congregational Association, Rev. John 
Seward was preaching in Portage county. On the 8th of July, 
1817, Mr. Seward and the Rev. Joseph Treat met in Cleveland 
on their way to this place, having an appointment to meet Rev. 
Alvin Coe here on July 15th. After preaching at several points 
on the way and spending the Sabbath at or near Vermillion, 
they arrived here July 15th, 1817, and met Mr. Coe. After a 
sermon by Mr. Treat at the house of Squire Strong, five persons 
were examined and approved as candidates for church member- 
ship. A meeting was then appointed for the 17th, at the school 
house, to complete the organization. On July 17th a meeting 
was held at the school house near the cemetery and five more 
persons were examined and approved. After a serpaon by Mr. 
Seward ten persons publicly assented to a confession of faith 
and covenant and were solemnly declared to be the visible church 
of Christ and charged to walk worthy their high calling. 

From the organization until 1828 the church worshiped in 
the log school house. In 1828 a brick school house was built, 
nearly in front of where this church now stands, and was used 
as a place of worship until this house was built in 1835. 

For the first three years the church did not have regular 
preaching, but there are several accounts of difPerent ministers 
being present and officiating, while several persons were received 
into the church. 

It is believed that during all this time public worship was 
maintained either through occasional visits of ministers or by 
members of the church. It is believed that Rev. Alvin Coe 
visited the church frequently. 

In 1820 the church united in calling a pastor, Lot B. Sulli- 
van. He was ordained at this place June 14, 1820, with six 
ministers present, all except one of whom came from eighty to 
one hundred miles to attend the meeting. 


This was the first ordination west of the Cuyahoga river. 
The church has always had a minister since that time, except 
some short interval when changing pastors. The church has 
been blessed with many revival seasons. I will mention only 
two. The first in the winter ef 1835-6. My father was the 
carpenter who had the contract for the erection of this building, 
and I have often heard him say that many who subscribed money 
and donated work were not members of the church. Late in 
the fall of 1835, before the completion of the building, a revival 
began in the school house, but the room was too small for the 
large number who came, so father moved his work benches out 
of the Sunday school room below, made some rough benches for 
seats, and in that unfinished room many of those busy men were 
converted. Uncle Worthington Nims, who is with us, nearly 92 
years old, being one of the number. As far as we know, there 
is but-one living besides Mr. Nims who subscribed to the build- 
ing of the church, Wesley Knight. Fifty were added to the 
church as the result of this revival. 

The church was organized on the plan of union, partly 
Presbyterian and partly Congregational, with the Presbyterian 

This plan was continued until 1872. Previous to this time 
effort had been made, but failed, to have the relation of the 
church to the presbytery and assembly dissolved. However, in 
the spring of 1872 it appeared that something of the kind must 
be done in order to keep the church together, those with Pres- 
byterian preferences, in a truly Christian spirit, consented to 
the change, and the church became fully Congregational and 
was received into the conference. 

The revival which followed in the early part of 1873 was 
the most general ever experienced by this church ; dating from 
a meeting held on a Sunday evening in January, conducted by 
a delegation of young people from Norwalk. 

This revival, which continued several months, brought unity 
and strength, healing all denominational differences and dis- 
agreements. Sixty were added to the church. 


The founders of this church did not think of the privileges 
of worship for themselves only, but were anxious that their 
children should be taught the word of God, and be trained for 
his service. 

In accordance with this thought, training the children for 
Christ, and to help in the work, a Sabbath School was organized 
in May 1818 in the oft mentioned log school house by the 
cemetery. This was the fourth Sabbath School organized in 
the state. I believe neither of the three organized previous to 
this is in existence ; if so, this is the oldest Sabbath school in 
the state. 

This Sabbath School has had a continued existence ever 
since its beginning in May, 1818, never having been frozen out 
in winter nor burned out in summer. Squire Strong was the 
first superintendent and held that position until 1829. 

This church and Sunday School have not only looked after 
their home interests, but the records show that they were among 
the first to take part in outside work. 

I hold in my hand the Constitution of the Domestic Female 
Missionary Society, organized in Lyme in 1826. Who says the 
Woman's Missionary Society is a modern institution ? 

I also have a call given to Rev. Enoch Conger to become 
pastor of this church, for which service he was to receive a salary 
of $400 ; one -third in money, the remaining two-thirds in pro- 
duce such as he could use in his family. 

At^the annual meeting of the Sabbath School Society in 
1830, Dr. Charles Smith was appointed a delegate to assist in 
organizing a county Sunday School Union, and again April 18, 
1832, the society chose Dr. Smith a delegate and Asahel Strong 
his " substitute " to attend the next annual meeting of the county 
union, showing that there was such a union in existence. 

The largest average attendance of the school any year was 
in 1873 after the second revival before mentioned, 130. 

This church was always strongly anti- slavery and during 
the rebellion furnished its full quota of boys for the Union army, 
several of whom were left on southern battle fields. One 


revolutionary soldier, seven of the war of 1812, and eleven of our 
own Union boys sleep in our own quiet cemetery ; only two are 
living in this community, both members of this church and 
Sabbath School. 

This Sabbath School has at difPerent times held mission 
schools in seven different school houses in surrounding 


I want to give just an illustratien. Asa Nims was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war. He came to this place in 1826, united 
with this church by letter ; there are now 34 living descendants 
of Mr. Nims within the bounds of this parish, 26 of whom are 
active members of this church. Two more will probably unite 
at the next communion and of the remaining six, four are under 
five years of age. They comprise one son, Worthington Nims, 
aged 92, five grandchildren, fifteen great grandchildren and five 
great great grandchildren. 


By 1. M. Gillett, of Norwalk. 

The last sermon was preached in the old Presbyterian church 
in Milan, April 29, 1888. It was a day fnll of emotions and 
reminiscence, it being the farewell sermon of Rev. W. L. Swan 
Its gray walls had sheltered saints and sinners for over half a 
century, and now hundreds of gray haired men and women who 
used to go to Sunday School in the ancient tabernacle and whose 
fathers and mothers wooed and were wedded under its roof, came 
from all parts of the country to weep and say farewell to the 
beloved pastor before he took his departure for his new field of 
labor. Little did they think at the time that it was a farewell 
to the old church also ; that ere another Sabbath it would be 
laid in ashes. 


It was built in 1836 ; at that time it was nearly surrounded 
by green fields and farm lands. Famous men have thundered 
forth within its old walls, thousands of sermons have been 
preached and hundreds have been converted there. Men who 
have been converted at its railings are nt)w preaching in China, 
in India, all over Europe, and in every corner of our country. 
The pebble that was dropped in the water there has started out 
ripples that have reached the uttermost corners of the earth and 
will wash the farthest shores of time. 

They ate bread and drank wine in the old fashioned way, 
little thinking it was the last time in that place ; tears were 
dropped and hands trembled as sweet memories stole into the 
sanctuary, while the old, old loves lived again. 

An Ehbrto History of Northwestern Ohio. 

The Toledo "Journal" says : 

" Those who are interested in prolonged and patient inves- 
tigation would be interested to spend an hour at the desk of 
Mr. Clark Waggoner, the veteran journalist of this section, and 
there see what twenty years of earnest work will accomplish. 
Scrap book after scrap book, filled and packed with clippings 
and copied extracts from the newspapers of this section, 
extending back as far as 1850, testify with what thorough care 
and pains the material for a complete history of Northwestern 
Ohio has been garnered The stupendous volume of work here 
represented staggers belief." 


The building of the stockade forts, with four block houses 
as bastions, at the confluence of the Auglaize and the Maumee 
rivers, begun by General Anthony Wayne and his army on 


August 9, 1794, and completed in eight days, then named by 
General Scott " Fort Defiance," because of its apparent strength, 
followed by the victory at Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794, 
proved a great protection to the early settlers of Ohio. The 
event was duly celebrated at Defiance in August, 1894. 

On June 19, preceding this centennial celebration, ten 
thousand people stood for two and a half hours watching a 
parade of 380 loads of logs donated by the farmers of Defiance 
county to be used in the reproduction of the old fort, which 
were delivered and unloaded to the music of six brass bands. 
Never before or since was there such a logging bee in Ohio or 
the nation. 

On August 3, 1895, the centennial anniversary of the treaty 
of Greenville with the Indians was celebrated at Greenville, 
Darke county. On August 3, 1795, the treaty was there signed 
by General Wayne and the Indian chiefs. 

The Ohio legislature authorized Governor McKinley to 
invite the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky, which 
states furnished most of the soldiers in the campaign of 1794, to 
send representatives to participate in such celebration, and to 
invite them also to prepare tablets or other mementos for a 
memorial structure. 

The invitations were cordially accepted. Nine Indians, 
descendants of the Miami tribe, dressed as such, with war paint 
and feathers, were present and attracted much attention. 

An immense concourse of people attended The orator of 
the day was Governor McKinley. 

The two events, and the two celebrations, will long rejoic- 
ingly live in the memories of the Pioneers and their children. 


Some of the brave sons of the Firelands entered the regi- 
ments formed in other states and there fought for the flag of 


our Union in the late civil war. The "New London Record" 

said as to one of them : 

" Mr. Leroy Thompson, of this village, is the recipient of a 
handsome bronze medal and a badge of honor, both of which 
were awarded him by the state of New York for faithful and 
valued service as a soldier of a New York regiment in the 
Rebellion, and especially for bravery in the battle of Gettysburg. 
Mr. Thompson deserves them both." 

Portraits of ConnoDORES Ferry 52P Macdonough. 

A Washington dispatch of July 23, 1895, in the New York 
" Sun," says : 

While Assistant Secretary McAdoo was in Charleston, 
South Carolina, recently, making an inspection of the naval 
militia of that state, he came across a rare oil portrait of the 
naval hero Commodore Macdonough, who divided honors with 
Perry in naval battles on the lakes in the war of 1812. 

The portrait is owned by one of the old families of Charles- 
ton, and is the work of the artist Jarvis, who painted the original 
portrait of Commodore Macdonough, which now hangs in the 
City Hall in New York City. 

The Navy Department is anxious to purchase the recently 
discovered painting, and Assistant Secretary McAdoo brought 
it back to Washington with him. It is now on exhibition at the 
Navy Department. There is an admirable portrait of Commo- 
dore Perry now in the Navy Department, and if the picture of 
Commodore Macdonough is purchased it will be hung by its side. 



Chicago, III., Feb. 9, 1895. — Twelve blue coated veterans 
wearing the little bronze button of the G. A. R., gathered at the 
Libby prison museum on Wabash avenue this morning. 


The occasion was the thirty-first anniversary of the famous 
tunnel escape from the prison on the night of February 9, 18B4, 
and the visitors to the museum this morning are the survivors 
of the 109 who tunneled their way to liberty and of the other 
veterans who were confined in old Libby during the war. 

Since the removal of the prison from Richmond, Virginia, 
to this city the anniversary has been observed each year by a 
party of old soldiers who revisit the different rooms of the old 
brick structure and recall the thrilling events of the war. 


A. W. Pierce, of Collins, writing to the Cleveland " Leader," 

has this to say about a remarkable family who served in the 

late war. 

"An old soldier living in this place while relating some of his 
army experiences, said he was one of eight brothers that enlisted 
in the late War of the Rebellion . I give below their names, 
thinking that this breaks the record of any other family in Ohio 
if not in the United States. Hubbard Hill enlisted in the 100 
days' service ; W. H. Hill enlisted in the Third O. V. C; Joseph 
Hill enlisted first in the three months' service then in the Third 
O. V, C. ; W. A. Hill enlisted first in the Seventy-second O. V. T., 
then in the Third O. V. C. : Morris Hill enlisted first in the 
Eighth O. V. L, then in the Third O. V. C; Stephen Hill 
enlisted in the Seventeenth O. V. I. ; Frank Hill enlisted in the 
Third O. V. C; Warren Hill enlisted in the Third O. V. C. 
All are the sons of William Austin Hill, of Scott township, 
Sandusky county, Ohio. W. H. Hill is now a resident of this 


The Pittsburgh "Dispatch" corresi^oaident at Wichita, 
Kansas, wrote March 24th, 1895 : 


"One fifth of the women of Wichita have registered this 
year to vote at the municipal election. It is the heaviest female 
registration in the history of the city. Among those who regis- 
tered was Mrs. Harriet McMurray a woman who knew Thomas 
Jefferson, and is now in her 115th year. She climbed two 
flights of stairs to be registered, with the assistance of only a 14 
year old girl." 

In the spring of 1895, the women of Ohio were for the first 

time permitted to vote at school elections. The " Toledo Blade '" 

then said : 

" Who is the oldest woman voter in Ohio ? ' Lucas county 
has a candidate for the honor in the person of Mrs. Cordelia 
Gear, of Miami, who cast her first vote on April 1, her 80th 
birthday. Can any county in Ohio dispute the honor ? " 

To this the " Norwalk Reflector " responded. 

" Yes, Huron county can beat that. Mrs. Elmira Breckin- 
ridge, mother of Mrs. Sampson Gray, of this city, and mother of 
Hon. H. C. Breckinridge and of E. P. Breckinridge, of Toledo, 
was 87 years old January 11, 1895, and on April 1st she voted 
at the Second ward polling place in Norwalk. Besides Mrs. 
Breckinridge, there were at least half a dozen other ladies over 
eighty years of age who voted in Norwalk on that day " 



James D. Easton died suddenly and unexpectedly, of heart 
failure, at his home in Monroeville, on Monday afternoon, July 
8th, 1895, at 2 o'clock, aged 79 years. 

Mr. Easton was born in Rushville, Ontario county, New 
York, in 1816, and was brought to Huron county by his parents 
in 1818, when two years of age ; he had been a resident of Huron 
county since. 


In 1848 he was united in marriage to Miss Jane Baker, who 
died but a few months previous to his death. Shortly after 
marriage Mr. Easton settled in Peru, where he lived until 1873, 
when he removed to Monroeville, where he afterwards resided. 

He was an ardent Republican from the organization of that 
party and was always prominent in the party conventions and 
gatherings. He served as mayor of Monroeville for one or two 
terms and was a member of the Huron county Infirmary board 
of directors for six years. 

Mr. Easton was one of the most active members of the 
Firelands Historical Society and rarely failed to attend its 
meetings. He was a member of its board of directors and 
trustees for five years, from 1885 to 1889 inclusive, and vice 
president for five years from 1890 to 1894, inclusive. 

He was a man of strong convictions and aggressive individ- 
uality, good habits and temperate, honest and upright in his 
dealings, of good character and an excellent citizen and 

One daughter, Ida S. Easton, and one son, J. P. Easton, 
both residents of Monroeville, survive him. 


On Friday afternoon, June 28th, 1895, at 2 o'clock, the 
earthly life of one of Norwalk's oldest and best citizens ended as 
tranquilly as the setting of a summer's sun. 

Ethan Allen Pray, respected and esteemed by all, died at 
his home. No. 38 East Seminary street, this city, after several 
months of illness with stomach and bowel troubles. 

Esquire Pray, as everybody called him, had been a patient 
sufferer for many weeks ; but with indomitable determination 
he kept about his business and daily visited his office, although 


he himself knew that he was slowly and surely sinking to his 
final rest. 

He was confined to his home but fior nine or ten days, and 
bore his sufferings with great fortitude, and resignation. The 
immediate cause of his death was thought to be catarrh of the 

He was conscious up to the last moment of his life and 
realized that his work on earth was ended and that he was soon 
to try the realities of spirit life. He died in the full hope of 
the resurrection and an exalted life beyond. 

Mr. Pray was 82 years old He was born in Killingly,. 
Windham county, Connecticut, January 15, 1813, He was the 
eldest of eight children and the last but one to pass over the 
river of death. One sister, Mrs. Amy Carver, aged 80 years, 
still lives in Cayuga county. New York. 

When four years of age Mr. Pray removed with his parents 
to Cayuga county. New York, where he remained till his twenty- 
sixth year. He received a good education in the common and 
normal schools in that state, and on completion of his studies 
was a successful school teacher for many years, both in New 
York and in Huron county. 

In 1839 Mr. Pray came to Huron county, and after living 
in Fairfield for six months removed to Fitch ville, where he 
remained until 1855, when he was appointed superintendent of 
the Huron County Infirmary, which position he occupied for 
six years. 

In 1861 Mr. Pray was elected jjistice of the'peace of Norwalk 
township, and held that office for twelve years, until 1873. After 
that time he held the same office for a number of terms, and was 
one of the township justices of the peace, and a township 
trustee, at the time of his death. 

During the war Esquire Pray was mayor of Norwalk, serv- 
ing in that capacity six consecutive years, and again two years 
afterwards. He was admitted to the bar in 1873, and afterwards 
held the office of city solicitor for two years. 


Esquire Pray cast his first presidential vote for William 
Henry Harrison in 1836, and again voted for him in 1840. 

He was one of the first and foremost members of the 
Republican party with!which he always enthusiastically affiliated 
up to the day of his death. 

In 1837 Esquire Pray was married to Miss Amanda 0. 
Cheney, of Ovid, Seneca county. New York. As a result of this 
union five children were born, all of whom are living. They are 
Mrs. J. L. VanDusen and Mrs. Gr. W. Cole, of Norwalk ; Mrs. 
Sarah A. Bates, of Sacramento, California ; Mrs. Joseph Casper, 
of Cayuga county, New York and Dr. Frank E. Pray, of Dayton, 

The first wife, the mother of the above children, died 
January 3, 1872. 

On July 1st, 1875, he married Mrs. Mary Sutton, a most 
estimable lady who survives her lamented husband. 

Besides the foregoing, a number of grandchildren and a 
large circle of warm friends regret the death of this excellent 
man. - - 

Mr. Pray had a kind, genial disposition, was careful and 
conscientious in all his business transactions, scrupulously 
honest, and the soul of integrity in all his dealings. He was in 
truth a noble man, highly respected and greatly beloved by all 
who knew him. 

He was a consistent and loyal member of the Norwalk 
Baptist church, which he attended with great regularity. 

He was one of the oldest and most influential masons in 
Huron county and was a prominent member of Norwalk Com- 
paandery Knights Templar. 

His funeral was very largely attended on Sunday afternoon, 
June 30th, in the Baptist church. The Masonic fraternity and 
the Bar of Norwalk appearing in their respective bodies to 
honor the memory of their esteemed associate. 

The services were under the direction of the Knights 
Templar who conducted the obsequies according to the solemn 
and impressive ritual of that order. 


The sermon was delivered by the Rev Dr. T. F. Hildreth, 
who eloquently eulogized the life of the deceased, portraying 
his virtues in fitting language. Prayer was offered by his pastor, 
the Rev. E. P. Smith. The music was choice and the floral 
offerings were very fine. 

Members of the Masonic fraternity were present from many 
of the surrounding towns. 

The remains were deposited in the family lot in Woodlawn 
cemetery, with the beautiful Masonic burial service well 


Francis G. Lockwood died at his home in Milan, Ohio,, on 
July 21, 1891, in the 76th year of his age. 

The following biographic sketch was prepared and read at 
his funeral services on July 23rd at his late residence, by Rev. 
L M. Kumler. 

Francis Gregory Lockwood was bom in the city of New 
York, April 6th, 1816. He was the eldest son of Ralph and 
Esther Antoinette (Gregory) Lockwood. His parents and their 
remote family connections were all from Norwalk, Fairfield 
county, Connecticut. His father with his family removed to 
the almost unbroken wilderness of Huron county in the Con- 
necticut Western Reserve in 1819-20, locating at Merry's Mills, 
soon afterward called Milan, and held the office seventeen years. 

Good schools were soon a part of this prosperous settlement, 
and being naturally of studious and inquiring habits, Francis, 
at the age of 18 had acquired from such educational advantages 
and as assistant in his father's varied transactions as postmaster, 
merchant, etc., a somewhat liberal and good business education. 
Two years were spent in the city of Buffalo, New York, first as 
accountant for a prominent dry goods house ; afterwards 
associated with parties operating in real estate conveyancing 
and six months in the book keeping department of a large 
banking house in Wall street (time of Van Baren's administrci- 
tion). During the years '37 and '38 he honorably discharged 


the duties of accountant and teller in the Exchange Bank 
of Hartford, Connecticut. Early in 1839 he became junior 
partner in the forwarding and commission house of Geo. Davis 
& Co., Buffalo, New York. 

His father, Ralph Lock wood, died October, 1838, leaving his 
family encumbered with a property difficult to manage as to 
real estate, minor heirs to protect, etc., so that Francis removed 
to Milan in the spring of 1840. 

His next venture was a general dry goods business with his 
cousin, James C. Lookwood, deceased, under the firm of J. C 
Lockwood & Co. 

Great prosperity crowned the eight years of business at the 
end of which, owing to the failing health of the junior partner, 
the firm dissolved and four years thereafter were spent by him 
as an invalid. 

Recovering health in 1851 he again entered into the 
mercantile business in the spring of 18^ with his brother, 
Ralph Lockwood, under the firm name of I^. G. & R. Lockwood, 
which continued to do a reasonably prosperous business for 
more than thirty years. From 1871 to the time when it became 
a certainty, Mr. Lockwood was personally, and pecuniarly to his 
hurt, identified with the construction of the Wheeling & Lake 
Erie railroad. 

As a citizen interested in the promotion of public educa- 
tional and charitable institutions of his chosen place of residence, 
in his day of active things, he was at the very front. As such 
he was honored by his fellow citizens from time to time with 
positions of trust and responsibility. In '57 as secretary of the 
Milan Canal Co., assuming the general management of the same 
in 1859. In 1864 he was appointed to the office of township 
clerk, which office, during the war of the Rebellion required 
close and constant attention to relieve the necessities of soldiers 
and their families. With the same year and with six succeeding 
years he served as clerk of the Milan Board of Education. Milan 
corporation elected him clerk in '75 and in '77 he was appointed 
secretary of the W. & L. E. R. R. Co., with office at Norwalk. 

In 1854 he was married in Milan to Miss Electa M. 
Reynolds, daughter of Jason and Esther (McMillen) Reynolds. 
They became, in process of time, parents of one daughter, 
Coralin A., and two sons, Walter J. and Frederick S., all of 
whom were in attendance at the last rites of respect. Three 
brothers, Ralph, William and Stephen Lockwood, with one 
sister, Mrs. Marvin, of Buffalo, New York, survive Francis as 
members of the family of Ralph Lockwood. 


In 1840 Mr. Lock wood was admitted to membership in the 
First Presbyterian church of Milan, while the Rev. Everton 
Judson of precious memory was pastor. 


Julia Austin Comstock died at the home of her youngest 
daughter, Mrs. C. V. La Vayea, of Cleveland, March 14, 1895, 
aged nearly eighty -four years. 

Julia Austin was born in Stamford, Connecticut, May 8, 
1811. Came to Norwalk, Ohio, in 1832, where Dec. 25, 1832, 
she was married to Philo Comstock. For more than forty years 
they lived on their |arm on the Old State Road, braving cheer- 
fully the burdens incident to that early pioneer life. 

In the fall of 1833 she united with the Presbyterian church 
of Milan and during all her life was a constant attendant. 

They moved to the village of Milan in the spring of 1875, 
where relieved from the active cares of life they passed many 
peaceful years. There the children and grandchildren gathered 
each Thanksgiving and the home circle was unbroken until the 
death of the husband and father, November 17, 1892. 

In December, 1894, she went to Cleveland to spend the 
winter with her daughter. Within a few days of her expected 
return she was attacked with pleuro-pneumonia, from which 
she never recovered. Her three daughters were with her in her 
last days, and with sorrow brought her back to her home in 
Milan, where she was laid to rest beside the companion who was 
waiting for her in the Great Beyond. 


Betsey Comstock Rockwell died at her home in New Canaan, 
Connecticut, August 14, 1895, aged 83 years and 8 months. 


In 1828, when only sixteen years of age, she came to 
Norwalk, Ohio, with her brother, Philo Comstock, then only 
nineteen, to assist him in settling and making a home on the 
land owned by their father, Nathan Comstock^ on the Old State 
Road. After staying with him two years, she returned to her 
home in New Canaan, Connecticut, where she was married to 
David S. Rockwell, Principal of the New Canaan Academy. 
She was the mother of six sons, all of whom survive her. 

In 1860, she, with her husband and family, came to Milan 
and purchased the farm since owned by Geo. Roberts. In 1865 
they returned to New Canaan, where she survived her husband 
several years. 


Louisa Ashley was born in Deerfield, Massachusetts, on the 
5th day of December, 1806. She removed to Ohio with her 
parents and settled in Greenfield township when eleven years of 
age. At the time of her death, she had lived in Greenfield for 
nearly 78 years. She was married to Nathan Beers on July 3rd, 
1828, and for 63 years journeyed with him along the highway of 
life, until he fell asleep, in 1891. Of this union were born three 
children, two daughters and one son, all of whom were privileged 
to minister to their mother in her last sickness and be present 
at her death and burial. Mrs. Beers died on the morning of the 
19th of July, 1895, aged 88 years, 7 months and 14 days. She 
had resided in the family residence south of Steuben for 67 
years. She had been a member of the Congregational church 
at Steuben for more than half a century. Mrs. Beers lived to 
see her great grandchildren and the manifold and wonderful 
changes of the last half century. — Norwalk Reflector. 



Susannah Dubois died at her home in New Haven, Ohio, 
August 12, 1895, aged 90 years, 7 months and 15 days. 

She emigrated to Plymouth, Richland county, Ohio, in 1818, 
with her parents, Peter and Sarah Ruckman, formerly Sarah 
Lee. She married T. J. Dubois four years after ; she lived with 
her husband 65 years ; she was the mother of ten children, all 
surviving her except the youngest, which died in infancy, and 
one who died at the age of forty-five. The oldest is now nearly 
seventy years of age, and the youngest now living 49 years, all 
being present at the funeral except one in California and one in 
Nebraska. She retained her faculties in an extraordinary 
degree until the last two days of her sickness, and bore her 
sufferings with great fortitude and patience, always thinking of 
other's comforts more than her own. She was a kind and 
affectionate mother and a warm friend to all her neighbors and 
associates, and seemed to live wholly for the comfort and happi- 
ness of others. 


Andrew Beelman died at New Haven, Ohio, July 2, 1895, 
aged 82 years. 

He was born in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, on April 
26, 1813. He removed to Ohio in the year 1836, was married to 
Elizabeth Seeley October 4, 1838, and first erected his pioneer 
dwelling in the forests in the west part of New Haven. In that 
township he spent his long and useful life. 



Grizzle Maria Meeker, only daughter of Stephen and Polly 
Meeker, was born June 28th, 1811, in Connecticut, and 
came to Ohio with her parents November 1, 1811, a babe only 
four months old. Her entire life was passed within a few steps 
of where she died. Her parents were married in the year 1800 
in Connecticut. 

On March 28, 1829, she gave her hand in marriage to 
Norman L. Wright. The fruit of this union consisted of two 
daughters, only one of whom, Mrs. John Wilson, still survives, 
whose entire life was spent with her mother. 

Mrs. Wright had been in failing health for the past seven- 
teen years, Mrs. Wilson having had the sole care of her mother. 

On May 22nd she fell accidentally from a step, breaking her 
hip and causing internal injuries resulting in her death on 
Friday, May 26, at 11 p. m., being 81 years, 10 months and 28 
days old. 

Mrs. Wright's father, Mr, Meeker, moved to the lake shore 
from Florence and took up a large tract of land, building one 
of the first brick houses on the shore. 

He was a blacksmith and had the honor of shoeing General 
Harrison's horse, receiving $16.00 for his pay ; and the hammer 
that he used is now in possession of the Historical Society at 
Nor walk. Mr. Meeker and wife stood on the bank of Lake Erie 
and heard the guns fired at Perry's famous victory 


David Higgins, of Norwalk, who was a sufferer from organic 
heart trouble for a long time, died at his late home on Saturday 
evening, March 16, 1895. 


Mr. Higgins had lived in Norwalk and vicinity for about 
fifty-five years and was an esteemed citizen and a business man 
of probity and honor. He conducted a tin and stove store in 
Norwalk for about forty years. 

He was born at Bath, New York, October 3, 1827, and was, 
therefore, in the 68th year of his life.' He came to Norwalk in 
1840 when but 13 years of age, making his home with his grand- 
father, the Rev. David Higgins, a pioneer Presbyterian minister 
in this locality. 

He was united in marriage in 1852 to Mary Williams, of 
Milan, and she, together with one son, David, survive him. 


Mrs. Albina G. Sanders died Friday evening, August 10, 
1894, in Cleveland. Her husband and several children survive 

Mrs. Sanders was a daughter of Ezra Smith, at one time 
one of the most prominent citizens of Huron county. He lived 
in what is known as the Mingus house, in Peru, when that little 
village was a lively, prosperous place, larger than Norwalk. 

Her husband. Dr. J. G. Sanders, was a son of Dr. Moses 
Sanders, who was a famous physician of Peru in those days. 
Dr. J. 0. Sanders opened his office in Norwalk in partnership 
with Dr. Reed, and his practice and home were afterward pur- 
chased by Dr. Ford. The history of this family is very 
prominent in the early annals of Huron county. 


Mrs. Maria Ross, an old Pioneer of . Huron county, died 
December 15, 1894, at her home at White Fox, at the advanced 


age of over 89 years. The deceased lived in that place over 47 
years, moving from Vermont to Ohio in 1821 She was the 
mother of 15 children, 47 grandchildren, 17 great grandchildren 
and five great great grandchildren. Five of her children live to 
mourn her loss. She survived her husband 14 years. 


Clarissa Gleason Clawson was born in Hector, Tompkins 
county, New York, January 25, 1812. She was married to John 
G. Clawson February 4, 1830. Mr. and Mrs. Clawson came to 
Ohio in the autumn of 1836, and settled in Clarksfield. In 1839 
they came to Milan, in the vicinity of which they have resided 
most of the time since. 

Mrs, Clawson was the mother of eleven children, two of 
whom died in infancy. She died November 14, 1894, at the 
home of her youngest daughter, in Lorain, Ohio, where she had 
gone to spend the winter. All that loving hearts and willing 
hands could do to alleviate her sufferings and smooth her pillow 
until the end came, was done by her eldest and youngest 
daughters and youngest son, who were present during her last 

Of the six sons and three daughters who survive her, four 
sons and two daughters were present at the funeral to pay their 
last tribute to the loved one. 

In her young days Mrs. Clawson was a member of the 
Baptist church, but a few years ago she became a member of 
the Seventh Day Advent church, of Norwalk, the members of 
which attended the funeral in a body. The funeral services 
were held in the Milan M. E. Church, and were conducted by 
its pastor, the Rev. James Gray. The body was interred in the 
Milan cemetery. 



Addison Kelley, tlie oldest resident of Kelley's Island, ia 
Lake Erie, died at his home on the Island, on Tuesday, March 
81st, 1895. 

Mr. Kelley had long been known as the patriarch of the 
island. The great stone house which, ever since the war, has 
been the principal landmark on the south shore, near the steam- 
boat landing, has a reputation far and wide for generous 
hospitality equaled by few homes north of the Mason and 
Dixon line. 

Addison Kelley was the oldest son of Datus and Sarah 
Kelley, who were among the earliest settlers of Cuyahoga county. 

When Datus moved to Cleveland from Lowville, New Yorky 
in 1810, he had the choice of a farm in what is now the business 
center of Cleveland, or in Rockport township, ten miles further 
west. He chose the latter, and all his children, including 
Addison, were born on what, for many years, was known as the 
Merwin farm, which is now the property of Hon. Clifford Beach. 

Addison was born June 11, 1812, the first white child born 
in Cuyahoga county. He was educated at Lowville Academy, 
Lowville, New York, and spent some of his early years in 
Cleveland in the employ of his uncle, Irad Kelley. 

In 1832 Datus and Irad Kelley purchased Kelley's Island, 
and soon afterward the former moved his family thither. 
Addison was active in the management of his father's estate, 
which was at that time chiefly valuable for its forests of red 
cedar. Later he became the proprietor of the " Island House,'' 
for many years one of the principal summer hotels in Northern 
Ohio. He was actively identified with nearly all the industries 
and interests of the island. 

He has always been a large holder of real estate and was 
one of the first to introduce the culture of the grape. For nearly 
thirty years he was the president of the Kelley's Island Wine 
Co. During his declining years, partly owing to ill health, 
partly to inclination, he has devoted his time to the care of his 
vineyards and to study. He was an omniverous reader and few 
men of less than collegiate training were his equals in breadth 
and variety of information. 

The only living descendants of Mr. Kelley are a son, a 
granddaughter and a great grandson, all of whom reside on 
Kelley's Island. He will be mourned, not only by the Island 
community, of which he has for many years been the most 


conspicuous figure, but by a large circle of friends all over the 
i;vest, who have enjoyed the open handed hospitality of his 
home. — Cleveland Plain Dealer. 


Judge Charles C. Baldwin, whose portrait and a biographical 
sketch appear in Vol. 6 of The Fieelands Pioneer, (new series) 
with his able address on the " Study of History in Ohio," 
delivered at the annual meeting of the Firelands Historical 
Society, June 25, 1890, died at his residence on Euclid avenue 
in Cleveland, of heart failure, after a brief illness of five days, 
early on Saturday morning, February 2nd, 1895. The Cleveland 
Leader said of him: 

" As a lawyer. Judge Baldwin's career was marked by rapid 
and signal success. His mind was such as to enable him to 
solve the most important problems relating to business and 
finance. Corporation and banking law was especially his study. 
He was popular among the people, as was shown by the manner 
of his election to the Circuit Court. Out of 160 votes cast at 
the convention which nominated him in 1884, 142 votes were 
cast for him. He was elected for the third time to the Circuit 
Court bench last fall, and up to ten days before his death sat as 
the presiding judge of that court. 

Though eminent as a lawyer and judge, Judge Baldwin was 
active in various pursuits, both in a business and educational way. 
He held, at one time, the position of trustee in two colleges and 
was actively connected with several educational organizations. 
The most important of the latter is the Western Reserve Histor- 
ical Society, of which he was one of the founders, and of which 
he was, at his death, president. He was elected to the position 
to succeed Colonel Charles Whittlesey. He was actively and 
intelligently connected with the society as secretary, trustee and 
trustee of invested funds, since the formation of the association. 
He was favorably known by historical, scientific and antiquarian 
societies both in this country and Europe. 

He gave much time and original research to the work of the 
Historical Society. He wrote and translated a number of works 


and the library and museum of the society owe much to his 
judicious selections. 

He was a member of the Presbyterian church. He married 
in 1862, Caroline Prentiss, the daughter of his law partner. His 
wife and two children, Mr. Samuel P. Baldwin and Mrs. J. P. 
Sawyer, survive him. 


Captain DeWitt Clinton Wilson was born in Wakeman,. 
Huron county. May 24, 1825. He was educated there, at 
Norwalk Academy and Oberlin College. He was married at the 
age of twenty-one years to Jane McCumber, and removed to 
Illinois and afterwards to Wisconsin, where he was editor of 
several papers. 

In 1861 he entered the army and rendered good service, was 
Lieutenant of Co. D, 18th Wisconsin, and afterwards Captain 
of Co. A, 9th Louisiana. He returned in 1864, having made a 
splendid record as an army officer. 

In the winter of 1865-6, he represented Monroe county ^ 
Wisconsin, in the State Assembly, and in 1876-8, represented the 
9th State Senatorial district. 

He died in Mauston, Wisconsin, August 26, 1895, aged 70 

He was the father of three children, Mrs. Mary Booth, of 
Wakeman, James A. Wilson, of Mauston, Wisconsin, and Mrs. 
France Pool, of Sparta, Wisconsin, He also has a brother, A. 
W. Wilson, residing at Sparta. His last widow, Caroline Luce 
Wilson, surviving him. 


Julia, wife of W. B. Ward, died at her home in Freeport, 
Michigan, on April 5, 1894, aged 77 years. She was a daughter 


of John and Hannah Wolcott, born in DeWitt, Green county, 
New York, in the year 1817. She moved to Huron county, Ohio, 
in 1832 ; was married in 1833 to Wra. B. Ward ; lived on the 
farm in Fitch ville township, Huron county, Ohio, thirty years, 
and there her children were born, ten in number, of whom four 
sons and one daughter survive, as follows : Dr. Milo B., of 
Topeka, Kansas ; Anson B and David O., of Freeport ; D wight 
B., of Chicago ; and Mrs. A. S. Fox, of Norwalk, Ohio. 


On Tuesdfciy morning, September 17, 1895, one of Norwalk's 
most esteemed citizens, died at his residence in this city, after a 
brief sickness of typhoid fever. He was born in Norwalk about 
forty years ago, where, except a few years of absence, he spent 
his life. He leaves an aged father, a widow and son, two brothers 
and three sisters to lament his loss. The " Chronicle " said of 
him : 

"Leonard was the youngest son of the Wheaton family, and 
as boy and man, was an especial favorite with all who knew him. 

At the last city election he was chosen a member of the 
City Council, receiving the largest majority of any candidate on 
the ticket. Upon the organization of that body he was selected 
as chairman of one of the most important committees. By his 
attention to the interests of his constituents and his prompt 
business methods, he assumed a leading position in the body of 
which he was a member. 

The deceased was a printer by trade, and served an appren- 
ticeship in this office under its first proprietors, but abandoned 
the stick and rule to engage in pursuits more congenial to his 
taste, and prior to his demise was conducting a market on Hester 
street in this city. 

Leonard will be missed and his handsome face and pleasant 
greeting will no more be seen and heard on our streets. 


Another prominent citizen of Norwalk, Charles R. Butler, 
died at his residence there after four months of severe sickness, 


on Friday,. September 13, 1895 He was born at Coburg, 
Ontario, about 43 years ago, and came to Norwalk in April 1876^ 
where he was very enterprising and prosperous in business. He 
leaves a widow, Mary Bently Butler, and three daughters, who 
have the heartfelt sympathy of many friends. 


One of the oldest hardware stores in Norwalk was that 
originally founded by Wm. Beebe & Son, purchased in the year 
1867, and now owned by his son, E. E. Little. The father, W. 
R. Little, was born in Trowbridge, England, September 29, 1819, 
came to America with his parents in the year 1825, first settling 
in New York city. He removed to Norwalk in the year 1835, 
and after five years opened a store at Bellevue, but returned to 
Norwalk in 1865, and remained there in his well known and 
prosperous business until his death. He was a man of much 
industry and probity of character, benevolent and public spirited, 
and his death was felt as a great loss to the moral, social and 
business community He died September 12, 1892. 


Cidelia Kilburn was born in Sparta, New York, and came 
to Ohio in an early day, being one of the Pioneers of Wakeman. 
She died at her home there, August 25, 1895, aged 72 years. 
She was the mother of ten children, seven of whom survive her 
and were present at her funeral. 


On the morning of July 4, 1895, Dennis Knapp, a promi- 
nent farmer of Hartland township, met a horrible death. 

He was cutting wheat with a harvester, and stopped at the 


turn to let his horses rest awhile. One horse, kicking at flies, 
kicked over the pole, and Mr. Knapp tried to get it back again. 
While in front of the machine the horses suddenly started, and 
Mr. Knapp was thrown down and the machine passed over him, 
The knives ripped his abdomen open, and he was terribly bruised 
by the heavy machine. 

He was taken to his home, and died soon after. He was 
conscious to the end, and suffered terribly. 

He was 70 years of age, a highly respected citizen, and 
member of the Hartland M. E. Church, from which place the 
funeral was held. 

Besides a widow, he left two children, Mrs. Frank Griffin 
and a son, Frank Knapp, both of Hartland. 


Lucius Curtis Simmons, born in Greenfield township, 
Huron county, September 27, 1833, son of the late Harlon E. 
Simmons, one of its early Pioneers, died on his farm near Hast- 
ings, Minnesota, after a brief illness of heart disease, January 
16, 1895. The Hastings " Gazette " said of him : 

"He came to Minnesota in 1861, settling in Marshan, where 
he has lived ever since. In 1860 Mr. Simmons married Miss 
Florence Bradford, of Lauderdale county, Tennessee, by whom 
he had seven children, all living, viz.: Frank A, Edward B., 
William J., Curtis L., Mrs. H. B. Lyon, Grace A. and Rose A. 
His wife died in 1875. In 1882, at Terre Haute, Indiana, he 
married a second time to Miss Lucy Delano, of Kentucky, who 
survives him. The citizens of Hastings will miss the kind, 
genial companionship of Mr. Simmons. His presence was like 
sunshine, genial, warm and cheering. The announcement of 
his death will be received with deep sorrow by a large circle of 
friends. Mr. Simmons was an honored and widely esteemed 
citizen, and a respected member of Dakota Lodge No. 7. A. F. 
and A. M." 

He was nephew of Hon. Charles B. Simmons and brother 
of Alonzo L Simmons, of Fairfield, brother of Mrs. Abby N. 


Stewart, and father of Miss Grace Simmons, of Norwalk. The 
Huron county " News " said of him : 

"There are few of the older citizens of Huron and Erie 
counties who do not remember him. He was a very large and 
handsome man with a disposition bubbling over with hearty, 
jovial good will. He always had a kind word for every one and 
his presence was welcomed as a season for fun and entertaining 
stories. In a business way he was very successful, owning farms 
splendidly stocked, aggregating over 1,000 acres of the finest 
Minnesota farming and Wisconsin timber land, all near St Paul. 

His death will be sad news to many a playmate of his boy- 
hood now living in Huron county. 

Although he took little interest in politics, he was called 
several times by his party to lead them in important campaigns 
He was a candidate against Ignatius Donnelly, the famous 
author and politician, and was nearly elected to Congress in the 
face of an overwhelming majority against his party." 


Andrew Jackson Coit was the son of Elias L. and Phoebe 
Brown Coit, and was born in New London, Connecticut, March 
18th, 1821. He removed with his parents to Ohio in 1836, and 
lived at home with them at Greenfield until he was of age. He 
married Emily A. Wright, May 27th, 1843. After marriage he 
removed to Indiana and spent two years there in pioneer life. 
At the death of his father, in 1846, he returned home to manage 
the estate of his mother ; and since her death he occupied the 

He was elected a justice of the peace, and held other offices 
of trust in the community in which he lived. 

Six children (four sons and two daughters) comprised his 
family, all of whom are living, the father being the first member 
of the family to pass away. The golden wedding of Mr. and 
Mrs. Coit was celebrated May 27th, 1893, and on that happy 
day the children all came home and all took their places at the 
table the same as in their childhood. It was the last time that 
the family were all together. 

Mr. Coit kept a diary of everyday events at his home and 
on the farm, and a correct record of the weather since 1852. 
His last entry was Saturday, March 23rd, and on the next 
morning (Sunday) he took his book and wrote the one word 


*' Sunday ;" it was the last word he ever wrote. Monday morn 
ing he took his diary and pen as usual to write, but said he 
could not see and called for a light. At 4 p. m. he had crossed 
the silent river. 

Mr. Coit was a great reader and writer. He was thoroughly 
posted upon every subject and he was a regular subscriber to 
and careful reader of many of the best papers and periodicals of 
the day. 

His riding horse, " Ephraim," is now on the farm and is 30 
years old, illustrating Mr. Coit's kindness of heart, for he would 
not allow the animal to be disposed of." — Norwalk Reflector. 


Charlotte M. Hubbard Davis died in her home in Florence, 
July 16, 1895, aged 71 years. She was born in New London, 
Ohio, October 28, 1823, came to Florence in April 1846, and was 
married to Milo A. Davis, September 13, 1848. Her husband, 
three sons and two daughters survive her. 


Mrs. Betsey P. West, widow of Sexton West, both former 
residents of North Fairfield, died at the home of her adopted 
daughter, Mrs. Anna Goodell, in St. Louis, Missouri, on Thurs- 
day, July 18th, 1895, aged about 86 years. 


Died at his home in Wakeman, Ohio. July 9th, 1895 , Frederick 
Wm. Fowler, aged 64 years. 

He was born in Milan, January 1st, 1831, a son of Judge 
Fowler, where he lived for thirty -one years. 


On December 5th, 1890, he was married to Elizabeth Lucas, 
of Wakeman, since which time he lived there, 

He enlisted in the Union Army at the breaking out of the 
war and served two years in the 8th O. V. I., when he was dis- 
charged on account of disability, since which time he suffered 
with consumption finally causing his death. 

He leaves a wife, three sisters and a brother. He was kind, 
gentlemanly and won many friends. 


One of the oldest residents of Norwalk, Christian Witt, died 
September 11, 1895, at the home of his son-in-law, C. Starbird, 
on ijinwood avenue, aged 81 years. 

He formerly resided in New London but came to Norwalk 
in April, 1895, with his wife to make their home with their 
daughter. He leaves a wife and, three, children, Mrs. E. W. 
Perkins, of Kansas City, Mrs. Calvin Starbird, of Norwalk, and 
Henry Witt, of Cleveland, He was for forty years a prominent 
citizen of New London and his death caused sorrow to many 
there. His funeral services were conducted from the M. E. 
church by the Masons. . . . , . 


One of the earliest Pioneers of Wakeman, Calvert Calon 

Canfield, died at his home in that township, on April 27, 1895, 

aged over 86 years. 

"He was born in Bridge water, Connecticut, January 1st, 
1809, and when eight years of age, came with his parents to 
Wakeman. The entire journey was made in a wagon and from 
Buffalo, New York it was through an almost unbroken wilderness. 


His was the first, and for six weeks the only, family in the town- 
ship. His parents first settled on the farm afterward owned by 
the late John G. Sherman. 

November 14th, 1832, he was married to Mary E. Hanford, 
and the next year moved to the farm where he lived until his 
death, April 27th, 1895. 

Mr, Canfield was converted under the preachinsr of Pres. 
Mahan, meetings being held in the large Oberlin tent He 
united with the First Congregational church, but when the 
Second church was formed, with his wife and others he" with- 
drew and became a charter member of the new church. Last 
August when the church celebrated its Jubilee, he was the only 
one of the twenty original members living, and to the joy of his 
friends and former pastors he was able to attend the services 
He was a deacon of the church, but his most useful work was 
that of a trustee, an office he held many years. He was a most 
liberal supporter of the church and a man on whom every pastor 
could lean heavily for support in all good work. In church 
attendance he left a record that is rarely equaled. For forty-one 
years he was absent from church but one Sunday. Such faith- 
fulness speaks volumes He was a strong abolitionist and was 
an active director of the "Underground Railway." He has 
sheltered as many as thirteen fugitives at a time, and hundreds 
of poor slaves seeking freedom, found in him a friend and helper. 

Mr. Canfield was the father of five sons and three daughters, 
five of them svrviving him. His wife departed this life m 
1882."— Wakeman Ind. Press. 


Eunice Corbin was born in Wakeman and died at her home 
in Florence township, April 26, 1895, aged 47 years. She was 
married to Darwin Canfield, May 31, 1869, whom she survived 
three years. She left one son aged about twenty years Her 
funeral was attended by a very large concourse of mourning 
friends and by two societies of which she had been a much 
valued member. 


Permelia Bailey was born August 15th, 1825, in Barrington, 
New York, was married to Morgan Lewis Chrysler, May 21st, 


1843, in the village of Springwater, New York. They moved to 
Ohio in 1846 and lived eight months in New London, and then 
came to Wakeman where she resided until death. She was the 
mother of twelve children, seven of whom and her aged husband 
survive her. She died at her home in Wakeman, April 28, 1895, 
aged 69 years. 


Mittie Bebout, daughter of William Bebout, born in Ruggles 
township, on the Firelands, who married Bev. Erwin H. Richards, 
and accompanied him to Natal, Africa, in the year 1880, when on 
a visit home, attended the Pioneer meeting of The Firelands 
Historical Society at Florence Corners, September 3, 1890, where 
she gave a very pleasing and instructive talk and exhibition of 
articles illustrating the manners and customs of the African tribes. 
She returned with her husband to their Mission at Inhambane, 
in 1893, and died there, September 17th, of that year, after a 
very brief sickness. Her husband remains there. She had 
translated and published the whole New Testament, with many 
hymns, tracts, etc., into the native language, and had accom- 
plished much good in her noble mission work. 

William Akmstrong, born February, 1796, died 1894, 
aged 98. Formerly of Wakeman. Died at Norwalk. Children, 
one son and six daughters. 

Luther avery, born 1819, died February, 1895, aged 76. 
Resident of North Monroeville. Survive, two daughters and 
four sons. 

Lydia Smith Bascom, born December 5, 1808, died February 
9, 1895, aged 67, formerly of Greenfield. Married February 
9, 1827. Leaves three sons and one daughter. 

John Bingham, born September 28, 1820, died February 


22, 1895, aged 74 Of Florence. Married Elizabeth Rice in 1859. 
Four daughters survive. 

Alfred Basoom, born 1830, died May 2, 1895, aged 65. 
Of Greenfield. Wife, two sons and one daughter survive. 

Mrs. Ruth O. Baldwin, born 1830, died October 12, 1894, 
aged 64. Of Waiikegon, Illinois, Widow of Milton Baldwin, 
son of the founder of Baldwin University. Daughter of Rev. 
Harry O. Sheldon. 

Betsey Baker, born in 1801, died March 1, 1894, aged 93, 
formerly of Fairfield, married Spencer Baker, and settled in 
Fairfield in 1817, was a sister of Mrs. l)avid Johnson, 

Albert Brown, born May 6, 1801, died May 27, 1894, aged 
93, of East Norwalk, married Emma Jane Bloomer, April 22, 
1832. Children, Mrs. L. J. Dimick, Charles A., Carrie F., and 
H. H. Brown and Mrs. C. H. Archer, 

Mrs. Julia A. Beecher, of Wakeman, born April 7, 1806, 
died January 8, 1894, aged 88. Married Cyrenus Beecher, 
November 18, 1856. She was a cousin of N G. Sherman of 
Norwalk. Mr. Beecher died July 17, 1885. 

Myron H. Bently, of Florence, born December 16, 1828, 
died November 14, 1894, aged 65. 

Mrs. Caroline Buer, of Wakeman, born died 

December 4, , aged 78. About 1818 came with her parents 

(named Canfield) to Wakeman and were the first settlers. 

Mrs. Johanna Cashman, of Wakeman, born 1810, died 
November 14, 1893, aged 83. 

BiLSY Conger, wife of Edward Conger, born September 21, 
1827, died February 9, 1894. Married in Bronson, June 11, 
1848. No children. 

S. W. Curtiss, born July 10, 1832, died February 2, 1895, 
aged 62. Of Fitchville. In June, 1851, married Fidelia Tucker. 
Children, Mrs. Ada Townsend, Misses Bertha and Pearl Curtiss. 

Mrs. Mahgaret Carter, of Florence, born September 6, 
1826, died June 5, 1894, aged 67. Came to Ohio in 1834 and 
married John Carter in 1845. Five children survive. 


Patrick Donnelly and wife, Mrs. P. Donnelly, died 
January 28, 1895, and January 29, 1895, aged 104 and 102 years. 
Formerly of Norwalk, later of Toledo. They were married 80 
years and have three children, the eldest, Matthew, is 79 years 

John Eggleston, born in 1813, died April 23, 1895, aged 
82. Of Fitchville. Children, Mrs. A. Burton, Mrs. H. T. Morse, 
Miss Kate Eggleston, Mrs. R. Knight, Mrs. Grarlic, Miss Hanna 
Eggleston, Mrs. Harvey Richardson, Samuel E., Elmer E., John 
and James. 

Cyrus H. Ennes, of Wakeman, born October 14, 1828, died 
December 27, 1893, aged 65. Married Celia French October 18, 
1851. His widow and son C. E., survive. 

Mrs. Jennette Shelton French, of Wakeman, born 1810, 
died February 16, 1895, aged 85. Her four sons, Birdsy, Silas, 
Douglass and Lewellan survive. 

Mrs. Esther Fletcher, of Clarksfield, born 1824, died 
November 14, 1893, aged 69. She married Joseph Fletcher. 

Smith Fletcher, of Clarksfield, born September 24, 1830, 
died May 2, 1894, aged 64. Married Eliza Weaver in 1856. 

John Fisher, born 1815, died March 31, 1895, aged 80, 
formerly of Hartland. Children, Lucius, Spencer, and daughters 
Francis and Mrs. Edgar Burras. 

Judge D. H. Fox, of Norwalk, born 1834, died May 26, 
1894, aged 60. Married Cynthia Beach. Children, Fred P., 
and Carrie. He was major of the 101st Ohio Regiment, Judge 
of Probate for Huron county for 15 years and at time of death 
President of the Huron County Bank. 

Edwin Gager, of Norwalk, born March 4, 1808, died April 
14, 1894, aged 86. Married Permelia Rose in 1831. Children, 
Mrs. S. K. Mann, Mrs. C. J. Baldwin, H. C. Gager. 

Frank Hale, of Wakeman, born 1821, died February 8, 
1894, aged 73, 

Joseph M. Haskins, of Wakeman, born April 23, 1812, 
died July 28, 1894, aged 82. Married Henriette Shelton May, 


1838. Children, Isaac T., Hepsy, Charles M,, Ida M. and Joseph 
L., with their mother survive. His grandfather Haskins was a 
captain in the Revolutionary army. 

B. H. HiNKLEY, died March 1, 1894, aged 83. In 1830 he 
married Maria Paine, Children, William and Mrs. Hannah 
Snyder. Resided in Bronson about sixty years. 

Wm. S. Hyde, of Townsend, born November 18, 1805, died 
May 7, 1895, aged 89. Married October 19, 1836, to Adeline 
Allen. Two children survive. He was one of the proprietors of 
Collins town plat. 

Lydia Bowley Hackett, of Fairfield, born December 3, 
1815, died March 13, 1895, aged 79. Married February 14, 1837 
to Wheeler Hackett. Children, Samuel, Thaddeus and Ed.ward. 

Abigal Huntee, born 1806, died March 21, 1895, aged 89. 
East Norwalk was her residence for over fifty years. Children, 
William Thayer and Mrs. T. C. Wormwood. 

H. Legkand Hurlbut, born 1817, died February 2, 1895, 
aged 78. Formerly of Norwalk, later of Fairfield, Michigan. 
Came to Norwalk in 1818. Married Matilda Gurley, sister to 
the first Mrs. David Morehouse. 

William L. Haerod, Attorney-at-Law, born October 8, 1835, 
died September 31, 1895, aged 60. Of Norwalk. Married Ade- 
laide A. Mallette, October 21, 1857. Children, Mrs. A. S. Mead, 
Mrs. K. E. Vroman, George H., and Fred W. 

Mrs. Rachel Ingham, of Wakeman, born February, 
1811, on the Ottawa county peninsula, opposite Sandusky, 
probably the first birth on the Firelands, died January 4, 1894, 
aged 83. Children, Mrs. Eugene Bentley and Mrs. Davenport, 
brother, Barnum Peck, of Florence, and sister, Mrs. Norton, of 
Milan, survive. 

Mrs. Augusta M. Johnson, of Wakeman, born 1830, died 
January 16, 1894, aged 65. Her sister, Mrs. S. B. Porter, survives. 

Seymour A. Johnson, of Wakeman, born January 16, 1825, 
died August 4, 1893, aged 69. His parents were the first white 
couple married in Wakeman. Married Augusta M. Jefferson, 


January 5, 1849. His widow and daughter, Mrs. Celia A. Dalton, 

Elizabeth A. Jacobs, born 1813, died February, 1894, aged 
81. Over forty-six years a resident of Norwalk. Mother of E, 
L. Jacobs, Eugenia M. Palmer, Emma Korus and E. C. Jacobs. 

Jennie Tuener Johnson, of Norwalk, born April 21, 1840, 
died May 8, 1895, aged 55, married Luther B. Johnson, October 
8, 1858. Children, Milo, Alma and Mrs. John Linder. 

Gilbert Knapp, born January 16, 1821, died March 8, 1894, 
aged 73. Of Margaretta Tp. since 1848. Children, James H., 
John T., Cyrus C. 

Edwin Kinney, of Norwalk, born 1824, died April 19, 1894, 
aged 70. Leaves widow and four sons : C. S., Bruce, A. E. and 

Polly M. Kellogg, born April 19, 1817, died January 22, 

1894, aged 76. Of Fairfield. She married Asher P. Kellogg 
November 22, 1834. Four daughters and one son survive. 

Eri Keelee, born 1799, died April 11, 1894, aged 94. Of 
Norwalk. Born in Norwalk, Connecticut, came to Norwalk, 
Ohio, in 1817 with his father and family and in company with 
Piatt Benedict and family. 

He leaves five children, Isaac M. Keeler, of Fremont, Ohio, 
editor of the '"Fremont Journal" ; Col. William B. Keeler, of 
Chicago, Illinois; Mrs. N. E. Martin, Cleveland; Mrs. George 
W. F. Randolph, Plainfield, New Jersey, Mrs. Homer B.Johnson, 
Norwalk ; and one sister, Mrs. L. Reding, of this city. 

Mr. Keeler was an old time resident, probably the oldest 
citizen of Norwalk at the time of his death. 

His first vote was cast in 1820, for James Monroe for Presi- 
dent, and he voted at every presidential election since, his last 
vote being cast for Benjamin Harrison in 1892. 

Mr. Keeler was -the last surviving person of the sixty-nine 
voters of Norwalk who voted in 1828 at the first corporation 
election in the village. 

Peter Ludwig, born February 6, 1839, died January 8, 

1895, aged 56. Of Norwalk. Leaves five sons and four daughters. 


Alexander Lewis, born 1825, died May 3, 1895, aged 70. 
Of Greenfield. Wife and one son survive. 

Judge Moon, born August 26, 1832, died 1894, aged 62 years. 
Born in New Haven, Huron county, married in 1860 to Mary E. 
Bent, at Kansas City, Missouri. Children, four girls and two 
boys. Second marriage to Florida Brinner, of Kansas; one child 

Philo MoMillen, born March, 1826, died in June, 1894, 
aged 68. Resided at Huron. 

Martin C. Morey, of Norwalk, born September, 1809, died 
September, 1894, aged 85. Children, son Arthur, daughter 
Marietta Dandaran, Greenbush, New York, 

William E. Moshier, died 1894, aged 82. Formerly of 
Norwalk, died at Pueblo, Colorado. 

Lucy C. McConnell, born September 1864, died August, 

1894, aged 47. Born in Berlin Township. 

Henry H. Manahan, born 1816, died July, 1894, aged 78. 
Formerly of Norwalk, later of Nevada, Missouri. Married Mary 
Jane Chapin. Children, Frank, Mrs. J. T. Birdsey, Mrs. S. S. 
Bigelow and Mrs. A. P. Fisher. 

Alpheus Man ley, born July 17, 1804, died January 1, 1894, 
aged 89. Formerly of Sherman, last of Oberlin. July 3, 1828, 
he married Marietta Bartlett. Children, Mrs. S. F. Deyo and 
Miss Mary Manley . 

Mrs. H. B. McClure, died February 8, 1894, aged 84. Of 
Huron. Sister of Mrs. Rev. Samuel Marks. 

Phillip Morton, born March 15, 1817, died March 26, 1895, 
aged 78. Of Berlin. Wife and two children survive. Brother 
of Gilkey and Robert, and worked as a sadler in Norwalk about 
60 years ago. 

Lydia Mitchell, born 1814, died February 24, 1894, aged 80. 
Of Norwalk. Mother of Mrs. G. H. Christian. 

Phoebe W. Martin, born 1811, died February 28, 1894, aged 
83 years. Of Norwalk. Mother of Mrs. David Young. 

G. L. McPherson, born October, 1803, died February 6, 

1895, aged 91. Hartland. . Married Thankful Butler in 1833 
No children. 


Maey E. Morehouse, born 1814, died July 11, 1895, aged 81. 
Of Norwalk. Widow of Lewis Morehouse. Children, Miss 
Lettie G., Mrs. Fannie Frank, Mrs. Thomas W. Dunn, Burt and 

David E. Moeehouse, born May 18,1825, died November 29- 
1894, aged 69. Of Norwalk. Married Eliza Gurley August 16, 
1847. Children Mrs. R. T. Parker, Albert H., Mrs. J. W. Foster, 
Mrs. E. T. Williams, Miss Sue, Mrs. O. G. Carter, Jr., and Mrs 
C. M. Hinkley. Mr. Morehouse had resided in Norwalk since 
1839, and after the death of his wife married Roxanna Fuller in 

Mrs. I. T. Norton, Milan, Died March 10, 1894. 

Mrs. Mary Norton, of Milan, born 1809, died March 3, 1894, 
aged 85. Was a sister of Mrs. Rachel Ingham, first white child 
born on the Fir elands, who died January 4, 1894 and of Barnum 
Peck, of Florence, surviving. 

WoRTHiNGTON NiMS, of Strongs Ridge. Born October 10, 
1801, died May 5, 1895, aged 93. Children, David Nims and 
Mrs. Melvin Wood. 

Rev. Dr. Alexander Nelson, died January 28. 1894, aged 88. 
Of Delaware. Connected with Norwalk Seminary and Baldwin 
University. Children, Prof. E. T. Nelson, Miss Clara Nelson. 

C. Perry Nichols, born 1809, died February 2, 1895, aged 86, 
Norwalk. Children, son F. L., daughter Kate. 

Mary Newman, born December 4, 1821, died December, 
1894, aged 73 years. Of Norwalk. Married Charles E. Newman 
September 15, 1842. Mrs. T. D. Shepherd the only child. 

Mrs. Tamzon Pulver, of Clarksfield, born 1814, died February 
21, 1894, aged 80. 

Dexter Parker, of Wakeman, born June 5, 1819, died 
March 4, 1894, aged 74. Married Amarelia Bailey, November 17, 
1850, who with eight sons and two daughters, survive. 

Mrs. Maria Reynolds Peck, of Clarksfield, born September 
6, 1819, died December 28, 1894, aged 75. Married Riley R. Peck, 
December 31, 1837. Children, Ira O., Ft. Scott; Charley R., 


lola, Kansas; Elvira Hollopeter and Cynthia Emery, Grelton, 
O. and Celina Stone, Clarksfield. 

Mes. Maeiette Ransom, formerly of Wakeman, born 1823, 
died March 6, 1894, aged 71. She was sister to B. H. French, of 

Thadeus Speague, of Wakeman, born January 28, 1826, 
died September 22, 1893, aged 67. Married Sarah Arnet, October 
19, 1852. Widow, two sons and two daughters survive. 

William Steel, of Wakeman, born June 24, 1810, died 
January 28, 1894, aged 83. Was twice married and had ten 

, Henry T. Sheewood, born 1807, died November, 1894, aged 
87 Lived on the Firelands over 60 years. 

H. M. Sinclair, aged 78, formerly of Bellevue, late of 
Lydonville, New York. 

Caroline M. Stewart, born July 5, 1820, died December 
30, 1894, aged 74, Resided in Berlin and Milan since 1842. 
Children, E. W. Stewart, Akron, E. H. Gibbs, Elmira, N. Y. 

Martin K. Stott, born September 14, 1835, died January 
16, 1895, aged 59. Of Boughtonville. Married Dolly S. Page. 
Children four sons two daughters. 

Wm. Squiees, born 1812, died February 27, 1895, aged 83. 
Of Berlin. Leaves three children. 

Timothy R. Strong, born April 17, 1817, died July 11, 
1894, aged 77. Of Norwalk. Married Ann Eliza Smith April 
3, 1845. Children, Wm. H., Mrs. Clara L. McGuire, Mrs. Alice 
C. Hotchkiss, Mrs. Charlotte F. Kennan. Mr. Strong practiced 
law at the bar of Huron and adjoining counties for over fifty 
years and was one of the most noted members of the Ohio bar. 

H. B. TiLLiNGHAST, died 1894. Born at Berlin Heights, 
Erie Co., died at Toledo. Children, Jay C, Albert, Grace and 

Mrs. Betsy Todd, of Wakeman, born March 31, 1813, died 
June 2, 1894, aged 80. Married George Todd August 27, 1834, 
who died April, 1853. Children, Edgar M., Edwin D. and Mrs. 
Ellen G., wife of Rev. E. D. Irwin, survive. 


Mes. Gilletty Tekry, of Wakeman, born July 4, 1806, died 
December 11, 1893, aged 87. She was a Purdy and married 
Jasper Munger in 1826, who died in 1836. Children, Sheldon, 
of Wakeman, and Orrin W., of St. Johns, Michigan. She 
married Halsey Terry, jr., in 1839, who died in 1859. One son, 
Halsey Terry Jr., survives. 

Mrs. Caroline Underhill, born 1818, died June 10, 1894, 
aged 76. Came to Sherman in 1826. 

Mrs. Joseph Wood, born 1809, died March, 1894, aged 85. 
Mother of Joseph B. Wood, Mrs. E. Howard Smith and Mrs. Geo. 

William Ward, of Norwalk, born 1817, died April 19, 1895, 
aged 78. Children, George, William and Mrs. Reiley Sherman. 

DusTiN Washburn, born June 14, 1824, died April, 1895, 
aged 70. Married Ruma Catlin in 1846. Children, Cyrenind, 
Jay M., Edgar W., Dallas and Mrs J. W. Hoag. 

Nancy Taylor White, of Norwalk, born 1817, died May, 
1895, aged 78. Married John C. White in 1841. Children, J. S. 
White and Mrs. J. H. Lombard. 

Orasanus a. White, of Norwalk, born October 4, 1819, died 
December 21, 1894, aged 75. First wife died in 1854. Second 
wife died in 1891. His children, Mrs. Laura Herrick, Mrs. Mary 
W. Stevens, Miss Franc White. Was three times mayor of Nor- 
walk, 1867 to 1871, and again 1876-8. Was very active in 
starting the system of water works, and was at one time a teacher 
in the Norwalk public schools. 

William B. Woolverton, of Norwalk, Attorney-at-Law, 
born August 6, 1843, died October 21, 1894, aged 51. Married 
Josephine Dewey January 19, 1881. Enlisted in 1861 in Co. A, 
72d Regiment, O. V. I., and served three years and nine months. 
Nine months of which he was a prisoner in Florence, Millin and 
Andersonville, an account of which prison life written by him 
may be found in Vol. 7 of the Firelands Pioneer. 

He was Prosecuting Attorney of Huron county from 1874 to 
1878, two terms ; and postmaster of Norwalk from January, 1892, 
until removed for political reasons in November, 1893. 


James F. Whiton, of Wakeman, born March 22, 1828, died 
June 3, 1892, aged 64. Brother of J. M. Whiton, of Wakeman. 

Mks. O. S. Washbuen, Birmingham, O., born 1816, died 
July 5, 1894, aged 78. She leaves a husband, two sons and four 

Mes. Phoebe Ann Wood^ of Wakeman, born 1810, died 
November 15, 1894, aged 84. Married James Yfood November 
29, 1827, who died in 1877. She was a Bently. 

Jeddediah Wood, son of Gilbert Wood, died at his home in 
New London Township, about one mile east of the village, 
October 5, 1894. He was born at South East, Putnam county. 
New York, September 10, 1822, and came to Ohio with his 
parents in 1832. The family settled about one and one half 
miles west of New London on the road leading to Fitchville, 
and was one of the pioneer families of that vicinity. His life 
was spent in agricultural pursuits. He was genial, industrious 
and exemplary. He was married September 22, 1861, to Susan 
F. Townsend, who survives him. His sons are Ralph J. Wood 
and Frank Gilbert Wood, of New London, and his daughters, 
Luxanne M. Hubbard and Sarah Alida Noble, of Norwalk. 
Another daughter, Delia May, died January 30, 1884. 

Mes. Lucy M. Yaeiok, of Wakeman, born in 1826, died July 
31, 1894, aged 68. Married George Green, who died leaving son, 
F. Green, of Toledo. Second marriage to Mr. Yarick. 


By Captain C, Woodruff, of Peru. 

Mrs. Lydia F. Minges died at her residence in Peru, 
September 8th, 1894, at the age of 74 years and seven months. 
She was born in Cayuga county. New York, on the 30th day of 
January, 1820. She was the second daughter of Nathan and 


Esther Wilbur, came to Huron county in 1826 and grew up 
among the earliest Pioneers. From a child she gave evidence of 
a bright intellect and a taste for learning. The common schools 
of her neighborhood were but the stepping stones to a wider 
field of learning. The old Norwalk Seminary under the leader- 
ship of Dr. Thompson contributed to enlarge her young but well 
balanced mind. After finishing her studies in that excellent 
institution, she was employed in teaching in the district schools 
in Norwich, Sherman and Bronson, Huron county, and in Reed- 
town, Seneca county. 

"She was married to Rev. J. E. Minges, April 27, 1841, and 
settled in Reed township, Seneca county, where her husband 
resided. They came to Huron county in 1855 and in 1868 they 
removed to the village of Maxville, or Peru, locating on the 
Ezra Smith farm, where both of them, with each of their aged 
mothers, closed their lives. 

The funeral services were conducted by Rev. .Dr. T. F. 
Hildreth at her late residence, on the IQth of September. . 

Mrs. Minges leaves three daughters, Mrs. A. L. Simmons, of 
Fairfield ; Mrs. Frank Marriot, of Delaware, O ; and Mrs. Frank 
R. Williams, of Toledo, O. Her husband died in 1885, leaving 
her the care of a large farm and the settling of several difiicult 
and complicated business transactions, all of which, by her rare 
prudence and good judgment and unremitting care, she seems to 
have managed with success. 

Few women in any station in life experienced more of the 
trying cares of life than Mrs. Minges. Four members of her 
own family, two of them very old and helpless, received from her 
kind hands the ministrations of care and attention which each, 
either by exhausted mental, or physical energies, required to 
smooth the path to the end of their long journey. While her 
own mental powers remained unimpaired to the end, her physical 
strength had been failing for many months. She had correctly 
interpreted the symptoms of her disease and anticipated its resuls, 
but was doubtless as fully prepared for the final summons as if 


the cold hand of the great Reaper had been laid upon her spirit 
with more intimations of his near approach. 

In the life of the deceased, those who knew her saw a noble 
woman, a conscientious Christian character, a faithful wife, an 
affectionate mother and a kind helper to those of her kindred 
needing her assistance ; exemplary in all her relations in life, a 
devoted follower of her Heavenly Master and a teacher of marked 
ability in the Sabbath school. She was a great reader and 
habitually studied the Bible. Her knowledge of the Scriptures 
was remarkable. Well versed in the theology of her day, she had 
a clear perception of the relative merits of conflicting doctrines 
that agitated the religious world. Having built her faith on the 
granite rock of holy writ, she was inflexible in hearing to its 
divine teachings. Unassuming in all her intercourse in society, 
modest in assuming any position in the church or the benevolent 
enterprises that received her support ; nevertheless, by her 
unselfish motives, by her known integrity, by her unswerving 
labors for the elevation of her sex, and by her close communion 
with the fountain of all goodness, she exerted an influence that 
will be felt and more fully appreciated long after her immortal 
spirit has reached the celestial side of the cold stream, and when 
they have no use for tears or occasions for aching hearts. 


Giles Boalt died October 18, 1894, at his residence in 
Norwalk, aged 71 years. He was born by the Old State Road 
south east of that city and had passed his whole life in Norwalk. 
He left a wife, one son, Frank, and a daughter, Louisa. He and 
his brother, Stephen, were for many years famous for their tree 
and flower nurseries, which did much to enrich the orchards 
and beautify the homes of the Firelands. 


Thaddeus Bunkek was born at Nantucket February 21, 1819, 
and died October 16, 1894. He was for many years a prominent 
citizen of Huron, Ohio, where his sister, Mrs. S. P. McDonald, 
survives him. His remains were interred at Tiffin by the side 
of his wife who was a daughter of Judge William Toll of that city. 

RoxANA Elizabeth Bott, born at Spafford, New York, 
August 1, 1830, died at Townsend, Erie county, Ohio, August 13y, 
1894. Married to John G. Bott, May 4, 1854. Left one daughter, 
Gertrude. Was the youngest of a family of six children who 
came to the Firelands in 1839, of whom two survive, O. F. and 
I. M. Gillett, of Norwalk. 

Elisha M. Colvee, born in Hudson, New York, in 1882, 
came when he was young, to the Firelands, died at his home in 
Sandusky, September 24, 1895. Was a prominent lawyer, city 
solicitor of Sandusky, and for three terms probate judge of Erie 
county. In the late civil war he enlisted as first lieutenant 
Co. B., Third Ohio Cavalry, was soon promoted captain, and 
served to the end of the war, participating in many severe 

Aleeed Chesebeough died in Detroit, October 3, 1894, ajid 
his remains were brought to Sandusky for interment. He 
entered the employ of the New York Central boat line as agent 
at Sandusky, in 1830, and followed the extension of the line to 
Toledo. In 1865 he accepted the general traffic agency of the 
Union Steamboat Company, making his headquarters in Detroit. 
He became interested in vessel property and at the time of his 
death owned several large vessels. \ 

He was, through many years, a prominent resident- and 
business man of Norwalk, being engaged in the mercantile 
business with Mr. Griswold, a brother of the late Mrs. C. L. Boalt. 
Mrs. Chesebrough was a daughter of the late Judge Ebenezer 
Lane, of Sandusky. Mr. Chesebrough was a cousin of Pickett 
Latimer, J. M. Latimer and Mrs. E. L. Warren, of Sandusky. 

Thomas Cadell died at his home in Monroe ville, Ohio, 
November 4, 1894, aged 80 years. He was roadmaster for the 


for the B. & O. railroad for many years and was one of the oldest 
railroad men in the country. 

Geoege Cooper, born in 1818, died at Birmingham, Ohio, 
August 30, 1894. Was said to be the first white child born in 
that (Florence) township. 

LoEENZO S. Chapin, born in Canajoharie, New York, in 1835, 
died at West Berlin, Ohio, in 1894. Came there with his parents 
in 1840. Was a prominent lawyer at Mattoon, Illinois, but 
failing in health, retired to his West Berlin farm, which in his 
hands was a model of successful cultivation. He left a wife and 
four children. 

MiEANDA C. Faeeae, one of the Pioneers, died at Birming- 
ham, Ohio, August 16, 1894, aged 88. 

Oean Follett, died at Sandusky, Ohio, October 14, 1894, 
in his ninety-fifth year. Was editor of a paper at Batavia and 
member of the New York Legislature. After removing to Ohio 
he was editor of the " Ohio State Journal," member of the State 
Board of Public Works, and president of the Sandusky, Dayton 
& Cincinnati railroad. 

Silas Doane, born in Granger, Alleghany county. New 
York, November 29, 1832, died at Hartland township, Huron 
county, Ohio, November 6, 1894 Married Eudolpha DeWitt, 
November 30, 1854. Was a member of Co., H, 166 Regiment 
O. V. I., and served from May 2, 1864, until the close of the 
civil war. Was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery at Norwalk. 
Left a wife, four sons and two daughters. 

Judith Griggs died atlier home in Olena, Ohio, September 
14, 1894, in her 86th year. She was a U. S. pensioner. 

Eno Holiday, born in the State of New York in 1813, died 
at his home on Hartland Ridge, November 17, 1894, aged 81 
years. He came to Ohio in 1833, and the next year settled in 
Hartland township, where he lived on the same farm for over 
sixty years. He left three sons and one daughter. W. G. 
Holiday, (Recorder of Huron Co ) J. O. Holiday, of Willis, 
Kansas; F. E. Holiday, of Flint, Michigan; and Mrs. Nettie 
Manahan, of Hartland. 


Jennie Todd Laird, bom at Wakeman, Ohio, July 18; 1864, 
died in Chicago, Illinois, July 15, 1895. She graduateil from 
Oberlin College in 1887, taught in Lorain for several years. 
Was married to Rev. Geo. B. Laird, August 24, 1892 

Her married life was one of tireless devotion to city mission 
work in one of the most needy sections of Chicago The Foreign 
Mission field can show few examples of greater sacrifice and 
more heroic devotion to duty than that manifested in this work. 
Her special department in S. S. was Primary Superintendent. 
Here for all of one winter she managed and taught alone from 
100 to 130 children, many of them lawless, and packed so closely 
together that they could not sit still. 

The last service for others that she performed was the 
making of 229 little sweet pea boquets Saturday night. These 
were given to the S. S. children Sunday. The sweet peas were 
sent from Wakeman. She was daughter of S H. Todd, a 
prominent citizen of Wakeman. 

Lucy MoSse Manahan was born March 17, 1817, in Venice, 
New York and died at her home in Norwalk, Ohio, September 
29, 1894. In June, 1843, she was married to George W. Manahan, 
and came with him to the Firelands. After six years in Mon- 
roeville and Norwalk, he purchased a farm in Hartland, on 
which they lived until 1871. Then they returned to Norwalk 
where he died and she survived him four years. Her father, 
Isaac Morse, was a near relative of Rev. Jedediah Morse, the 
great geographer ; of Prof. F. B Morse, famous in the American 
telegraph enterprise ; of Sidney E. Morse, author of the Modern 
Geography ; and of Lieutenant General Winfield Scott. She 
left two sons and three daughters surviving her, E. W. Manahan 
and Mrs. F. G. Robinson, of Moss Point, Mississippi ; Dr. 
M. W. Manahan, of Atlanta, Georgia ; Mrs. G. W. Robinson, 
of East Orange, New Jersey ; and Mrs. C. F. Stewart, of 
Norwalk, Ohio. She was well worthy of her noble descent 

John Mahan was born in Galway, Ireland, in 1814, lived 
for nearly sixty years on or about the Firelands, and died 


September 13, 1894, at the home of his daughter in Norwalk, 
Mrs. G. T, Whitney. He left two sons, P. H. and Thomas 
Mahan surviving him. 

Samuel McCague, born in Summit county, Ohio, May 3, 
1820, was married to Susan Donley and settled on his farm in 
Hartland township, in 1852. He died November 18, 1894. His 
sister, Jane Bishop, of Bedford, Ohio, and his brother Thomas 
J. McCague, of Bronson, survive him. 

Lucy Clark MoConnell, born in Berlin, Erie county, 
September 12, 1846, and died at her residence in Peru township, 
August 27, 1894. She was married to Harry McConnell, April 
5, 1866. She was president of the James Mann Relief Corps for 
several terms and treasurer of Peru Grange from its organiza- 
tion to her death, which adopted tributary resolutions in praise 
of her many excellent qualities. She left her husband and one 
daughter surviving her. 

James Otis, born at Berlin,. Ohio, April 1. 1818. Died at 
Chicago, Illinois, September 14, 1895. Was Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas of the Firelands district. Removed to Chicago 
in 1863 in moderate circumstances, but by real estate investments 
became a millionaire. When he went there he out the timber 
for his new house on Wabash avenue, from his Berlin farm, 
loaded on a schooner at Huron, and then taken by water to 
Chicago. His three brothers, Lucius B., Frederick and Joseph 
E. Otis, were with him there in business. In 1845 he married 
Margaretta Adams at Huron, Ohio. His sons, Philo A. and 
Walter J. Otis survive him. 

Mr. Otis founded the Calvary Presbyterian church, and was 
prominent, after the fire, in the First Presbyterian church and 
Presbyterian Theological seminary in Chicago. 

Irene Phillips, born in New York citY, May 26, 1815, died 
September 29, 1894. Came to the Firelands in 1834, lived in 
Townsend, Berlin, Milan and Norwalk. Married to Rufus S. 
Benedict in 1866, who died in May, 1893, since which time she 
lived with her step-daughter, Mrs. Judson Perrin. 



Anson. D. Skellenger, M. D., bc^to in, Geneva, New York; 
June 23, 1823, died at his home in New London, Ohio, 
June 27, 1895. He was for many ye^rs an active member 
and worthy officer of the Eirf lands Historical Society, of which 
he was elected Vice President in 1874. An excellent historical 
address .was delivered by him before the Society at its Fall 
Meeting, 1869, which was published in Vol. 10, page 16, of The 
FiEELANDS PiONEEE. He Contributed other valuable articles 
from his pen to the collections of the Society. . 

Abel Smith, born in Lanesboro, Massachusetts, October 24, 
1812; died in Grreenfield, Huron county, Ohio, September 12, 
1894. He came to Greenfield when twelve years old and lived 
there until his death. He married Jerusha Brooks, whom he 
survived about twelve years. They had ten children, seven of 
whom are living. He was famous among the early settlers for 
his remarkable physical strength, activity and endurance, and to 
this were added his generosity as a neighbor and his upright 
character as a citizen, 

Henry T. Sherwood,- born in Gloustershire, England, in 
1807, died at his home in Norwalk, NovemJDer 3, 1894. He lived 
on the Firelands over sixty years, iti Milan, Townsend and 
Norwalk. He was married in the city of Boston, 1833, and 
survived his wife two years. 

Aurelia Snavley died in Norwalk, Ohio, October 9, 1894, 
aged 83 years, of which 65 years were lived there. She was 
mother of Frank M. Suavely, the well known railway passenger 
agent, and bore an exemplary character proved by her many 
good works. 

Esther Wakeman, born in Fairfield county, Connecticut, 
October 19, 1813, died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. J. J. 
Pryor, in Wakeman, Ohio, October 17, 1894. She married W. 
H. Wakeman in 1833, when she came with him to reside on tire 



Charles E. Newman, of Norwalk, Ohio, Frontispiece. 
The St . Paul's Episcopal Church, page 110. 



OflBcers of the Society 2 

Winter Meeting, Huron, Feb. 22, 1894. . 3 

Thirty Eighth Annual Meeting, 1894 ... 10 

Fall Meeting, Huron, Sept. 12, 1894. ... 31 

Winter Meeting, Plymouth, Feb. 22, 1895 37 

Thirty Ninth Annual Meeting, 1895 45 


Uncle Jim, Last of the Wyandots 52 

Civilization of the Ninteenth Century 

By Rev. C. S, Aves 61 

Address— Patriot War of 1837-8, by Hon. 

R. R. Sloane 73 

Contract of Consolidation; T. N. & ('. 

& Junction R. R. Co., by L. D. 

Strutton, Esq 89 

Famous Artists of the Firelands 93 

BuriaJ of the Missionary's Wife, by I. 

M. Gillett 99 


Methodist Episcopal, Norwalk 105 

St. Paul's Episcopal, Norwalk 110 

Lyme Township and Lyme Congrega- 
tional Ill 

The Old Church, Farewell, by I. M. 
Gillett 117 


Continental Currency, Poem 30 

Continental Money 36 

The Old Columbus Pike 43 

The Old Time Fire, Poem 44 

Ohio and Her Indian Names 60 

The Centenarians 72 

State Museum of Wisconsin 98 

An Old Landmark Gone 104 

An Embryo History of Northwestern 

Ohio 118 

Two Grand Centennial Celebrations... 118 

Honor to the Brave 119 

Portraits of Commodores Perry and 

Macdonough 120 

Libby Prison, 12 Survivors of Tunnel 
Incident 120 

Breaks the Record, 8 Brothers in the 
Rebellion 121 

First and Oldest Woman Voters 121 


James D. Easton 122 

Ethan A. Pray 123 

Francis G. Lockwood 126 

Julia Austin Comstock 128 

Betsey Comstock Rockwell 128 

Louisa Ashley Beers 129 

Stisannah Dubois 130 

Andrew Beelman 130 

Grizzel Maria Meeker 131 

David Higgins 131 

Albina G. Sanders .^ 132 

Maria Ross .' .... 132 

Clarissa Gleason Clawson 133 

Addison Kelley, of Kelley's Island 134 

Hon. Charles C, Baldwin 135 

Captain DeWitt C. Wilson 136 

Julia Ward 136 

Leonard A. Wheaton 137 

Charles R. Butler 137 

W.R. Little 138 

Cidelia Kilburn Crawford 138 

Dennis Knapp 138 

Lucius Curtis Simmons 139 

Andrew J. Coit 140 

Charlotte M. H. Davis 141 

Betsey P. West 141 

Frederick W. Fowler 141 

Christian Witt 142 

Culvert Calon Canfield 142 

Eunice Corbin Canfield 143 

Permelia Bailey Chrysler 143 

Mittie Bebout Richards 143 


Arranged Alphabetically 144 to 153 

In Memoriam of Lydia F. Minges, by 
Captain C. Woodruff 153 

Arranged Alphabetically — 155 to 160